Bio Workshop

Bio Workshop - FromDNAto Protein:Gene Expression...

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From DNA to  Protein: Gene  Expression
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Chapter 10 Key Concepts 10.1  Genetics Shows That Genes Code for  Proteins 10.2  DNA Expression Begins with Its  Transcription to RNA 10.3  The Genetic Code in RNA Is Translated  into the Amino Acid Sequences of Proteins 10.4  Translation of the Genetic Code Is  Mediated by tRNA and Ribosomes 10.5  Proteins are Modified after Translation
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Concept 10.1 Genetics Shows  That Genes Code for Proteins Observation in humans led to the proposal that  genes determine enzymes Identification of gene product as a protein  began with mutation Archibald Garrod  saw a disease in several  children called  alkaptonuria   (“black urine”)
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Alkapotnuria-  “Black Urine” The disease was common in children whose  parents were first cousins Garrod realized that first cousins share some  alleles from each of their grandparents The children of first cousins are more likely  than other children, to inherit rare mutant  alleles in the homozygous condition Garrod proposed that  alkapotnuria  was a  phenotype caused by a recessive, mutant  allele
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Garrod  identified the biochemical abnormality  in affected children He isolated an unusual substance,  homogentisic acid , which accumulated in the  blood, joints, and urine (where it turned black  when exposed to air) Then, he proposed that in healthy people,  homogentisic acid might be broken down to a  harmless product by an enzyme This acid is part of a biochemical pathway that  catabolizes proteins These and other studies led Archibald Garrod to  correlate one gene to one enzyme
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The concept of the gene has changed over time Mutation result in alterations in amino acid  sequences RNA genes are also subject to mutations that  can affect the functions of the RNAs they  produce Genes are expressed via transcription and  translation Transcription - the information in DNA  sequence (a gene) is copied into a  complementary RNA sequence
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This diagram summarizes the processes of gene expression  in eukaryotes From Principles of LIFE
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Gene Mutations and Amino Acid Changes From Principles of LIFE
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10.2 DNA Expression Begins  with Its Transcription to RNA Transcription requires several components: A DNA  template  for complementary base  pairing The appropriate  nucleoside  triphosphates ( ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP) to  act as substrates An  RNA polymerase  enzyme
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RNA Polymerases RNA polymerases catalyze the synthesis of  RNA from the DNA template They are  processive - a single enzyme-
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course H/A 121 taught by Professor Alamo during the Spring '12 term at Morgan.

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Bio Workshop - FromDNAto Protein:Gene Expression...

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