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Chapter 2 - Females XX Males XY Dominant-Recessive...

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Chapter 2: Biological and Environmental Foundations Phenotypes : directly observable characteristics Genotypes : the complex blend of genetic information that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics GENETIC FOUNDATIONS Chromosome : rod-like structures that store and transmit genetic information o 23 matching pairs o DNA : chemical substance that make up chromosomes, long double stranded molecule Gene : a segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome Mitosis : the process where DNA can duplicate itself Sex Cells Gametes : sex cells – the sperm and the ovum, contains 23 chromosomes o Meiosis : gametes are formed through this cell division Zygote : when the sperm and ovum unite at conception, 46 chromosomes Autosomes : 22 of the 23 pairs of chromosomes are matching o The 23 rd pair consists of the sex chromosome
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Unformatted text preview: Females: XX Males: XY Dominant-Recessive Inheritance : only one allele affects the child’s characteristic (Dd)- making them a carrier Incomplete dominance : a pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed, resulting in a combined trait, or one that is intermediate between the two • X-linked inheritance : harmful allele is more likely to affect the males because their chromosomes don’t match Genetic imprinting: alleles are imprinted in such a way tat one member of the pair is activated Mutation : a sudden change in a segment of the DNA Polygenetic Inheritance : many genes influence the characteristic in question Socioeconomic Status (SES) : related to three variables: • Years of education • Prestige of and skill required by one’s job • Income...
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