Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Physical Development in Infancy and...

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Chapter 4: Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood Body Growth Height o After 1 st year –50% greater than at birth o After 2 nd year –75% greater than at birth Weight o 5 months – weight 2x o One year – weight 3x o Two years – weight 4x Middle of the first year babies plump up – peaks at 9 months Skeletal age : a measure of bone development to estimate a child’s physical maturity Cephalocaudal trend : “head to tail”, the head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body Proximodistal trend : “near to far”, the head, trunk and chest grow faster than the arms and legs, and finally the hands and feet Brain Development Development of Neurons o Neurons : 100 to 200 billion loosely packed nerve cells that store and transmit information o Synapses : tiny gaps between neurons where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch Neurotransmitter : chemical that allows the neurons to send messages to one another by crossing the synapses Synaptic pruning : elimination of seldom stimulated neurons
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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Physical Development in Infancy and...

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