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Ch 7: Physical & Cognitive Development of Early Childhood Development period: early childhood (2-6 years) Dramatic growth levels off 2-3 in/year in height Gain 5 lbs/year in weight Posture gets better Proportion becomes more adult-like Teeth – care important at this stage Brush, avoid sugary foods, drink fluorinated water, get dental care Age 6 start losing teeth Protect from tobacco smoke – causes immune system to be unable to fight bacteria Brain Development During stage, brain increases from 70% of adult size to 90% Improves many areas More synapses formed Myelination Greater cell death Synaptic pruning Coordination, perception, attention, memory, language, logical thought, imagination
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Frontal lobe has 2x neurons as adults Language skills increase, self-control increases Right hemisphere is responsible for spacial skills Lateralization continues Handedness – righty/lefty Hand preference develops Right hand/left brain controls Left hand (10%)/ right brain Language skills are shared between hemispheres More likely to be ambidextrous Left handed is absence of right hand gene More likely to have outstanding verbal and mathematical talents More likely to be less lateralized (share jobs) Brain changes Cerebellum – balance and control of body movement Grow thru preschool years Increase size and connections Increase thinking skills Corpus callosum
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Reticular formation – maintaines alertness and consciousness Better able to pay attention Forming connections Hippocampus – memory and spacial skills Form maps in head Happens 2 nd half of 1 st year Influences on growth Hormones responsible for growth Pituitary gland Growth hormone – growth of tissues except CNS & genitals TSH – stimulating thyroid glands to release hormone to help us reach full adult brain size Nutrition Decreased appetite after 2 years bc they are not growing as much Picky about food Chose food choices as adults raising them Poor diet related to infectious disease Immunization – dramatic decline in childhood diseases 23% preschoolers not fully immunized 26% low income
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childhood injuries (2-6 years) Leading cause of childhood death Auto collisons, pedestrian accidents, drowning, poisoning, gunshot, burns, falls, choking Risk factors – poverty, single parent, parent w low education 15% more likely in non-industrialized countries Motor Development Becoming less top heavy Gates become more smooth & rhythmic Can run, jump, skip – gross motor development Allows them to explore world with hands Self-sufficient at feeding, dressing, shoe tying (6 yr) themselves Can better mentally represent the world Starts around 3 years thru drawing More realistic around 5 years Can distinguish object from background 4 years – start being able to write, better fine motor skills, realize writing is symbol for language sex differences – boys encouraged to do sports, girls encouraged to develop fine motor skills Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory (2-7 yrs)
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Preoperational stage (2-7) Increases in symbolic activity
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exam 2 notes -...

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