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exam 3 notes - Ch13:Physical&(1840 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT...

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Ch 13: Physical & Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood  (18-40) PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Senescence – biological aging Begins once the body reaches maximum capacity and efficiency Genetically influenced declines in the functioning of organs and systems that are universal in all members of our species Microscopic level of aging Programmed effects of specific genes Kinship studies – you live longer if your parents lived long Existence of “aging genes” that control certain biological changes, such as menopause, grey hair, deterioration of body cells Evidence: human cells allowed to divide until nothing was left Random events theory DNA in body cells is gradually damaged thru spontaneous or externally caused mutations As they accumulate, cell repair and replacement becomes less efficient. Abnormal, cancerous cells are produced Organ and tissue level of aging Cross-linkage theory of aging Over time, protein fibers that make up the body’s connective tissue form bonds, or links, with one another. When these normally separate fibers cross-link, tissue becomes less elastic, leading to negative outcomes Loss of flexibility in skin/organs Clouding the lens of the eye Clogging arteries Damage to kidneys
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PHYSICAL CHANGES THAT OCCUR Cardiovascular Hypertension – high blood pressure Heart performance declines with age during stressful experiences Difficult delivering enough oxygen Atherosclerosis – heavy deposits of plaque containing cholesterol and fats collect in the walls of main arteries Heart disease has declined Less smoking Improved diet & exercise Better medical detection and treatment Respiratory Respiratory volume decreases & breathing rate increases in physical activity Maximum vital capacity declines by 10% per decade after age 25 Connective tissue in the lungs, chest muscles, ribs stiffen with age – more difficult for lungs to expand to full volume Motor Performance Upper biological limit of motor capacity is reached in the first part of early adulthood (early 20s) Declines in heart and lung functioning, under conditions of exertion, with gradual muscle loss leads to changes in motor performance Running speed drops slightly from mid30s – 60s Dramatic decline after that Immune System The capacity of the immune system to offer protection against disease increases through adolescence and declines after age 20
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Due to changes in thymus – largest during teen years, then shrinks Production of thymic hormones reduced – thymus is less able to promote full maturity and differentiation of T cells T cells – attack antigens directly B cells – secrete antibodies into the blood system, capture antigens, permit the blood system to destroy them Psychological stress weakens the immune system Divorce Caring for an ill aging parent Sleep deprivation Chronic depression Physical stress weakens the immune system Pollution Allergies Poor nutrition Rundown housing Reproduction Declines with age Women Fertility problems among women increase between 15-50 Decline in fertility is due to reduced # and quality in ova Men Semen volume, sperm mobility, % normal sperm decreases after 35
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