Notes 1 - 1/11/12 Chapter 1 Human Development Constancy and...

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1/11/12 Chapter 1 Human Development Constancy and change in the time of conception through death Multidisciplinary – borrowed from history, anthropology, education etc… Domains of Developments Cognitive o Types of changed that relate to our processing and our memory, and the way we think about things Emotional and Social Physical o Bone growth, teeth development etc… Periods of Development : 1. Prenatal 40 weeks – the entire pregnancy The most rapid changes 2. Infancy and Toddlerhood From birth – 2 yr old Create an emotional bond with caregivers o We need this bond to survive Learning to speak – cognitive Learning to walk – physical 3. Early Childhood 2 yr – 6 yr old Friendship development Start of autonomous behaviors – they will say NO often 4. Middle Childhood 6 yr old – 12 yr old o School aged child Learning to read, logical thought, focusing of rules and organization – cognitive Hand-eye coordination, speed, complex movement Sports teams become important 5. Adolescence Flexible age range Puberty – 18 yr old
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Establish your own identity Independence o Occupational identity – figure out what you want to do Sexual identity 6. Early Adulthood 18 yr – 40 yr old Start to focus on ourselves – college and occupation 7. Middle Adulthood 40 yr – 65 yr old Start to focus on the next generation Getting ready for retirement 8. Late Adulthood 65 yr – death Majority of people are retired Can spend the majority of your life in this stage The Basics Individual differences o 99.1% of genetics are identical, yet we are all different Heredity, culture, social events Average children: simply average Development is orderly General specific Developmental Controversies Continuous or discontinuous? o Hill- predictable future development based on current facts, physical growth in both height and weight, vocabulary (continuous) o Staircase- cannot predict future behavior from previous behavior, illness, trauma, eating disorders (discontinuous) Multiple courses or same road map? o Just because typically things happen, it doesn’t mean that we are able to predict this outcomes – multiple courses Nature vs. nurture? Lifespan Perspective Development is: Lifelong Multidimensional Multidirectional
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Plastic – related to our brains, and the recovery if there is an injury Influenced by multiple, interacting forces Theoretical Backgrounds Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud o Three Parts of Personality Id, ego, superego o Psychosexual theory Chapter 1 cont. 1/18/12 Theoretical Backgrounds cont Psychosocial Theory o Erik Erikson o Extended the theory Freud and made it the whole life cycle Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory o John Watson – decided not to focus on the subconscious, and instead focused on the behaviors o B.F. Skinner All about reinforcements (increasing likelihood that a behavior
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course PSY 231 taught by Professor Limegrover during the Spring '08 term at Miami University.

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Notes 1 - 1/11/12 Chapter 1 Human Development Constancy and...

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