Notes 2 - 2/1/12 Chapter 4: Physical Development in Infancy...

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2/1/12 Chapter 4: Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood Body Growth Growth is intense during first two years intense growth spurt o Height One year old – height has increased by 50% since birth Two year old – height has increased by 75% since birth If we were to continue to grow – by 18 we would weigh 2 tons o Weight Five months – weight doubled since birth One year – tripled weight Two years – quadrupled weight o Body fat Increases at first, then slims Decreased because of height gain and movement gain Trends: o Cephalocaudal Trend We see a head to toe progression in development A baby can move head before legs o Proximodistal Trend Inner then outer type of change Think before writing Skeletal Growth In the womb, the skeleton is made of cartilage Hardens into bone gradually Skeletal age Epiphyses: o Related to bone growth o At the end of our long bones – they release cartilage to lengthen bones o When they are gone, we stop growing Skull growth o Able to be squished when born o Fontanels – ridges in skull that have not all fused together yet o Skull fully fuses at about 19 years Teeth o Need to clean out mouth after baby feeding o White baby first tooth – 6 months o Black baby firth tooth – 4 months Take number of teeth they have and add 6 = baby months General growth curve
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Exceptions: Lymph nodes, genitals and brain The Neuron How our brain communicates Myelin Sheath – allows the electrical message to jump from space to space o Myelination Made up of fat, to insulate the neuron to allow communication to occur faster Brain Development 100- 200 billion neurons at birth o We lose between 20-80% of neurons Neurons communicate through neuron transmitters o As it moves into the neuron as a chemical, it turns into electrical after Synaptic pruning o Making room for more neurons to communicate by some dying Lateralization o Two hemispheres that contain similar parts of the brain o Allows for different hemispheres to take on different tasks Greater ability to do more things, because we have twice as much space to do different tasks Plasticity o If we have some sort of brain trauma we can recover Easier to recover when we are younger o Re -associates neurons with different areas, and can make new connections Deprivation Studies and Enrichment Sensitive Periods o Certain windows were stimulation is necessary for typical development Institutionalized children o Earlier out, best outcomes Cognitive, emotional problems if over age 2 Overwhelmed by stimulation Intervention may be too much 2/6/12 Influences on Early Physical Growth Heredity o Monozygotic twins – they will be alike in height and weight o Adoption Nutrition o Breastfeeding meets nutritional needs best Malnutrition in mother Working mothers
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Motor Development Dynamic Systems Theory o A combination of when how we gain control (neck before legs)
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course PSY 231 taught by Professor Limegrover during the Spring '08 term at Miami University.

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Notes 2 - 2/1/12 Chapter 4: Physical Development in Infancy...

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