final exam review guide

final exam review guide - Chapter 7: Self Perception Theory...

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Chapter 7: Self Perception Theory Attributions- what you look at to explain why something happened the way it did External or internal factors Attributions : the process of creating casual explanations for why things happen Humans believe there is a reason for behavior Locus of control : the source of control can be internal or external factors Positive behavior- think better of someone who you made an internal attribution of (getting an A on an exam) Consistency Theory- cognitive dissonance SPT Kelley’s Attribution Theory Dispositional attributions : internal attributions or personal characteristics Situational attributions : external attributions based in influences around the individual Attribution factors: 1. Consensus : high consensus if most other behave that way - situational attribution 2. Consistency : whether the observed behavior occurs over time o Low consistency if the behavior only happened once – situational attribution 3. Distinctiveness : how different the situation is among targets or situations o If someone is late for everything – dispositional attribution Non-normative behavior : either an internal or dispositional cause, not standard or typical for a situation When there are less situational cues, then people make dispositional attributions Self-Perception Theory We are observers of ourselves Involves a person acting and then figuring out why he or she behaved in that way in order to understand their own attitudes Postulates: 1. Individuals come to know their own attitudes, emotions, and other internal states partially by inferring them from observations of their own overt behavior and the circumstances the behavior occurred in 2. To the extent internal cues are weak, ambiguous, or un-interpretable, the individual is functionally in the same position as an outside observer who must necessarily rely upon those same external cues to infer the individual’s internal states
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Insider v. outsider : we have more information about ourselves than others Intimate v. Stranger : we have knowledge about our past behaviors that strangers don’t have about us Ourselves v. others : we try and protect our self-esteem, seek out external reasons for negative behavior Situation v. Action : we focus on the situation more then the action, observers focus on the action more than the situation A self-perception model 1. Individual must be induced to act 2. Environment cues must be arranged so that a dispositional attribution results Pro-attitudinal advocacy : when people speak in favor of positions they currently support Counter-attitudinal advocacy : individuals were induced to speak against their current attitudes Door-in-the-face (DITF) : starting big going small Foot-in-the-door (FITD) : starting small going big SPT says if you start small, then people will look at their behavior to understand what their attitudes are on the topic as long as they do not perceive the behavior as
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final exam review guide - Chapter 7: Self Perception Theory...

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