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StuDocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or universityHuman Anatomy and Physiology Lecture notes, lectureBonesHuman Anatomy and Physiology (University of Technology Sydney)StuDocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or universityHuman Anatomy and Physiology Lecture notes, lectureBonesHuman Anatomy and Physiology (University of Technology Sydney)Downloaded by yash patel ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|5292982
Axial Skeleton(80 Bones)The axial skeletonconsists of thebones of the skull,thorax, and vertebralcolumn. Theseelements form thelongitudinal axis ofthe body.The appendicularskeleton includesthe bones of thelimbs and thepectoral and pelvicgirdles that attachthe limbs to theaxial skeleton.AppendicularSkeleton(126 Bones)BonesOsteology: the study of boneCartlage: fexible connectve tssue composed of collagen and elastn fbres. Covers the joint surfaces ofmature boneLigaments: hold bones together at the jointsTendons: atach muscle to boneAxial(think vertcal axis) andappendicularskeletonDownloaded by yash patel ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|5292982
Functions of bone:-Support-Protecton: skull protects brain, ribs protect heart and lungs, spine protects spinal cord-Movement-Leverage: along with muscles to lef the body-Electrolyte balance: calcium and phosphate ions-Storage of minerals: e.g. calcium salts of bone maintain normal blood concentraton-Blood formaton: red bone marrow produces blood cells6 types of bones:-Flat bonesoRoof of the skulloThe sternumoRibs-Sutural bones: small, fat, irregularly shaped bones. The pieces are similar to those of a jigsawpuzzle and ft together with ‘sutures’oBones of the skull-Long bones: long and slenderoHumerusoFemur-Irregular bones: have weird shapes with notches or ridged surfacesoPelvisoSpinal vertebrae-Sesamoid bones: small, fat and shaped like a sesame seed. They develop inside tendons and aremost commonly located nearjoints at theoKnees –patellaoHands and feet-Short bones: small and boxyoWrist (carpal bones)oAnkles (tarsal bones)Osseous Tissue: means bone tssueDownloaded by yash patel ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|5292982
Bones are made of 4 types of cells:-Stem cells (osteoprogenitor cells): turn into osteoblasts-Osteoblasts: lay down the organic parts of the bone (collagen, the fexible part of the bone)—they bury themselves in and then evolve intoosteocytes-Osteoclasts: are similar to macrophage derived cells. Huge, made of loads of cells comingtogether to form a mass. They break bone down in order to fracture and remodel the bone. Theyrelease acid, enzymes in order to dig the hole and reform the bone-Osteocytes: They have special sensors to sense pressure. Once pressure is sensed they releasecompounds to trigger biochemical pathways to increase bone mass and encourage bones torebuild. Some osteocytes also reabsorb (dissolve) bone matrix while others deposit it (redbuild).-Minerals from elsewhere give the bones their strength-When you get older, the breakers (osteoclasts) tend to be more dominant that the builders(osteoblasts)Osteons: tubes inside of tubes. Below is a cross secton of a long bone. Each of the blue tubes is similarto the rings of a tree trunk. They are flled with collagen fbres that run in the same directons. HoweverDownloaded by yash patel ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|5292982

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