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Social development Fall 2011

Social development Fall 2011 - *One of the only theories...

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10/4/2011 1 * * * One of the only theories that extends over the entire lifespan * Focuses on the social elements that influence individual development * During each stage an individual faces new psychological and social challenge called a psychosocial crisis * * The labels represent a continuum rather than an either/or choice. * The way individuals resolve each crisis affects their view of themselves and of society. * Positive resolution of one crisis does not imply positive resolution of the next. * Negative resolution of one crisis also does not imply negative resolution of the next. * 1. Trust versus Mistrust (Infancy) * Parents and primary caregivers are dominant environmental or social influences. * An infant whose needs are provided for believes his or her needs will be met and learns to trust the world. * Infants who experience lapses in having their needs met learn that the world may or may not meet their needs, and develop a sense of mistrust. * 2. Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt (toddlers) * Parents who provide opportunities for their children to explore their surroundings without guilt for accidents or mistakes are likely to instill a sense of autonomy in their children. * Parents who are either punitive or overly protective will instill in their children a sense of shame or doubt abou t their own capabilities. * * Provide reasonable choices. * Allow children to do things for themselves. * Be accepting of attempts at mastery. * Provide reasonable expectations. * Provide opportunities for independence. * Expect occasional non-compliance.
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10/4/2011 2 * 3. Initiative versus Guilt (preschool age) * Children interact with parents, primary caregivers, and peers. * Preschoolers who are rewarded for trying new things are likely to have a sense of initiative. * Doing things for children may result in a sense of guilt. * Adults who respond to failures by being overly critical, or who ridicule children’s creative and innovative behaviors, are likely to instill guilt within children. * * Provide age-appropriate tasks and activities in which children can experience success. * Refrain from providing unsolicited help, because this suggests you believe they cannot do it alone. * Avoid being overly critical of failures or setbacks. * Provide toys for pretend play. * 4. Industry versus Inferiority (elem/mid school) * Teachers and peers within the school system become increasingly influential. * Children will develop a sense of industry when they have parents, teachers and peers who provide opportunities to successfully complete tasks, learn information, and become competent workers or skilled in particular areas. * Children develop inferiority when they believe that they are not competent in areas of school-related or home functioning. * 1. Be aware that activities or teaching approaches which emphasize competition among students could lead to inferiority.
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