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LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT KEY CONCEPTS Active listening: listening in a non-defensive way and responding by clarifying the message rather than criticizing Articulation disorder: a speech disorder diagnosed when a familiar adult cannot understand a child’s speech at age three, or when articulation errors are still evident at age eight Babbling: repetitive consonant-vowel combinations produced by infants, such as dadadada. Child-directed speech: language directed to infants and children characterized by high pitch, exaggerated intonations, elongated vowels short and simple sentences, and repetition Code mixing: bilingual individuals’ use of words or phrases from one language as a substitute in the other language Decoding: applying sounds to letters to identify printed words Dysfluency: a lack of fluency in speech production, which may involve repetition of syllables, words, or phrases, interjections, pauses, revisions, and sound prolongation English immersion:
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