Behaviorism 2_2011 Fall_Bb

Behaviorism 2_2011 Fall_Bb - Next Class Mon Sept 12 Text pp...

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1 Next Class: Mon. Sept. 12 Text: pp. 138-158 "Can students be paid to excel?" School-wide programs for good and reducing bad behavior Optional: Your idea for your behavior modification project Instrumental Learning- Thorndike: Cat in the box experiment. What happened ? The Cat Learned !!! Behavior Change = Learning Major Differences (2) 1. Operant Conditioning the individual (actively) operates on the environment to bring about reinforcement. Classical Conditioning the individual is passive . 2. Classical Conditioning involuntary response. Operant Conditioning voluntary response. Primary Reinforcers Consequences that satisfy a biologically built-in need. Food, water, warmth, “fixes” Secondary Reinforcers Consequence that becomes reinforcing over time through its association with another reinforcer. Praise, hugs, money
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2 Extrinsic Reinforcers Reinforcers from the outside environment. Concrete Social Activity - Premack principle engage in less preferred activities to gain access to more preferred activities Positive feedback Shaping Reinforces Closer Approximations to Desired Behavior Shaping (or the method of successive approximations ): teaching a new behavior by reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired behavior Accidental Reinforcement Can Cause Superstitious Behavior Superstitious behavior: learned because it happened to be followed by a reinforcer, even though this behavior was not the cause of the reinforcer. Skinner trained superstitious behavior in hungry pigeons. He reasoned that when reinforcement occurred, it would
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Behaviorism 2_2011 Fall_Bb - Next Class Mon Sept 12 Text pp...

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