Critical Hydraulic Gradient-when the seepage force just balances the buoyant weight of an element of soil. Preconsolidation stress ( σ ′ P ) is the maximum effective stress that a soil has suffered throughout its life. Secondary Consolidation- is primarily due to particle reorientation and organics decomposing. Difference between compaction and consolidation- Consolidation is a more difficult and time consuming process where compaction is done more rapidly. Dryer soils are compacted wetter soils are consolidiated. Soil filters-use of soil to increase ground water flow while retaining soil and preventing migration of smaller particles itno the filter material to clog it and prevent ground water flow. Difference between Boussinesg and Westergaard solutions-Westergaarrd’s method doesn’t assume the material to have elastic properties. He assumed that horizontal strain is 0 at all points. Westergaard produces = or smaller values. Relationship between Liquid Limit
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