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CHAPTER 10: JOURNALISM LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, students should know: 1. The functions of journalism and the role they play in the interpretation of news. 2. Aspects of what makes up news. 3. The definition of agenda-setting and how the theory works. 4. About the historical development of journalism. 5. Who Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were and their roles in the development of journalism. 6. About the foundational aspects of journalism. 7. The role framing the news plays in news coverage. 8. How fair and balanced coverage has replaced the goal of objectivity and what that means. 9. At least three specialized types of journalism and the special requirements of those types. 10. Some of the characteristics of journalism in the digital world. 11. Some of the ethical issues journalists face in their work. 12. The importance of having women and minorities represented in the newsroom. 77
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CHAPTER SUMMARY/LECTURE OUTLINE I. Vignette: A look at CNN’s coverage of Election Night 2008 and its use of hologram images of correspondent Jessica Yellin and hip-hop artist and activist Another innovative technology used by CNN was touch-based screens. II. Media Quiz: A Nose for News: Questions test students’ understanding of news and journalism and the purposes they serve. For example, are broadcast journalists required to be licensed by the FCC? III. What Is News? A. News usually is about an event that affects the public in some way, or that at least has some element of public interest to it. 1. News is the result of journalism’s function of surveillance or covering events, making sense and interpreting the meaning of events, and outlining ways these events fit or don’t fit society’s standards. 2. News happens fairly recently (timeliness) or, in the case of past actions, learning about the past actions that have taken place recently. B. Conventional wisdom suggests that news means reporting the unexpected. But news is, in many ways, manufactured and influenced by a wide variety of people, organizations, and forces. 1. Historian and Pulitzer Prize–winning author Daniel Boorstin describes what he calls “pseudo events,” such as press conferences or other staged events like marches and rallies, as an example of how groups can influence news coverage. 2. Soft news is human-interest stories or features. 3. Agenda-setting means journalists can influence by their coverage what is deemed important by their audience and what is therefore more likely to be discussed. 4. In terms of the amount of space devoted to each type of content, most newspapers and magazines are actually more advertising than news. IV. The Historical Development of Journalism: The penny press drastically changed journalism as publishers tried to seek mass audiences and became more dependent on advertising for revenue than subscriptions. James Gordon Bennett founded the New York Herald in 1835 and helped transform newspapers with creation of a financial page,
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course JOUR 201 taught by Professor Roberts during the Fall '08 term at South Carolina.

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