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CHAPTER 6: VISUAL MEDIA: MOVIES AND TELEVISION LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, students should know: 1. Why photography is an important form of mass communication and the role it has played in our visual culture. 2. About the development of photography since its invention. 3. The role that technological changes had on the film and television industries and content. 4. How movies work, the impact of sound and color on moviemaking, and the function of the movie industry. 5. Some of the early movie pioneers and what made them famous. 6. Business models and structures that have influenced the film industry. 7. The major Hollywood studios and the media giants that own them. 8. The role of the blockbuster in movie culture and audience perceptions. 9. About the resistance the movie studios had first to television, then to videotape, and now to digital media, and why. 10. The differences between terrestrial, cable, and satellite broadcasting and the implications for viewers. 11. The functions of television and the main ways people receive the medium. 12. How the television industry has changed with cable, satellite, and convergence. 13. Key features of digital TV, HDTV, and interactive TV, and the impact each has on viewers and the industry. 39
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CHAPTER SUMMARY/LECTURE OUTLINE I. Vignette: A look at future dramatic changes in television viewing, including features to allow viewers to read online reviews before watching a program, search for theme song lyrics, and buy the CD online. II. Media Quiz: This “Eye-Q” Test looks at the foundation of photography, film and television, and the ethics of some media practices. III. Photography: Photography has played an important role in mass media because photographs can convey powerful stories more quickly than the printed word, verify factual claims, and elicit emotions in a way that words alone might not. However, digitization dramatically alters aspects of visual media. A. Historical Development of Photography 1. The various technological aspects of photography had existed for hundreds of years prior to the invention of photography, with the camera obscura being used by Leonardo da Vinci as an aid in drawing scenery. a. Joseph Niépce and Louis Daguerre worked together in the late 1820s and early 1830s to develop photography, with Daguerre finally creating the daguerreotype, a method for creating a positive image on a metal plate, in 1839. 1) Media Timeline: Development of Photography: Begins with the daguerreotype in 1839, expands with Mathew Brady’s Civil War photographs in 1860 and George Eastman’s invention of roll film in 1884, and ends with peak sales of roll film in 1999. 2) International Perspectives: The Photojournalist’s Dilemma: Sudan, Starvation, and Suicide: A discussion of the responsibility, if any, of photojournalists to help the subjects they photograph and the implications that would emerge if they regularly helped people during conflicts or tragedy. B. Seeing Beyond the Human Eye: Eadweard Muybridge used photography to show
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