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Johnson Reading Summary

Johnson Reading Summary - reasons Assumptions are often...

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Megan Scharar Abigail Wolford English 102 13 September 2011 Johnson Reading Summary This section of reading pertains to writing arguments. Arguments are intended to shape an audience’s view concerning a controversial issue. The key components to writing an argument are issue questions, claims, and stakeholders. One should begin with a question that has many possible answers, state a claim to support their ideas, and take into account the stakeholders, people affected, by the answer to the question. The chapter then dives into the issue of the e- Waste Crisis. It gives extensive background information and facts, who is affected, and what can be done. To move from an initial claim to an argument, one needs reasons. The reasons support the claim that answers the issue question. Johnson gives an example through the water bottle crisis. A chart displays the audience and stakeholders and how the claims and reasons change depending on the reader. Assumptions should also be included as logical and back up the
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Unformatted text preview: reasons. Assumptions are often times implied and not bluntly stated within an argument. Developing an argument requires one major component; evidence. Evidence should be facts, examples, data, quotations, or further reading. Richard Fulkerson came up with the STAR criteria for evaluating evidence; sufficiency, typicality, accuracy, and relevance. Arguments should also address the opposing or alternative views that can be claimed to create a stronger point. The argument should also be constructed for the audience it is intended. Analyzing rhetoric is also important aspect. One should understand the argument presented represents a larger conflict, the writer’s angle of vision, the motivation and purpose, and the genre. Lastly, it the book discusses the importance of examining logos, ethos, and pathos. These elements can vary dramatically....
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