BOT EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE

BOT EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE - BOTEXAM1STUDYGUIDE...

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BOT EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 03/10/2011 23:01:00 Botany = the scientific study of plants Plant Any vegetable organism (sprout or sapling)  Moss = fungi (green from feeding off  Approaches to studying nature Religious methods Metaphysical systems: beliefs based on patterns (not always logical) Speculative philosophy  o Reasoning leads to conclusion Concept of the atom Scientific method o Observation o Hypothesis o Experiments/observations o Conclusion o Scientific theory Supported by observations and experiments Alfred Wegener Plate tectonics Continental drift 
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Discovered and proposed the theory of PANGEA -- Biomolecules: Chemical and Physical Bases of Life Matter Occupies space + has mass Made up of ELEMENTS Atoms Smallest part of an element Nucleus Center of an atom Protons = positive charge Electrons = negative o Electron shell = outermost shell determines the atoms reactivity Neutrons = neutral  ATOMS PREVELANT IN LIFE Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Sulfur Nitrogen Phosphorus
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Molecules Two or more ATOMS bound together In constant motion Temperature increase and decrease Bonds + Ions Covalent o Forms when TWO atoms complete their outermost energy level by  sharing a pair of electrons Polar = electrons are shared UNequally Non polar = electrons are shared EQUALLY  Hydrogen o Forms as a result of ATTRACTION between POSITIVELY charged  HYDROGEN atoms in polar molecules and negatively charged atoms  in other polar molecules Only have 7-10 percent strength Ionic o Forms when ELECTRONS in outermost orbital are completely  removed from ONE atom and transferred to ANOTHER atom IONS = form when molecules gain or lose electrons  Monomers + Polymers Polymers = form when two or more monomers bond together  o Condensation (Dehydration Synthesis) Removal of water in the formation of a bond o Hydrolysis A bond is BROKEN, water is ADDED 
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-- Organic Molecules Carbohydrates Energy source and simple sugar MOST ABDUNDANT organic compound in nature Three Basic Kinds of CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharide o Simple sugars with backbones of THREE to SEVEN carbon ATOMS  (glucose and fructose (fructose is an isomer of glucose)) o GLUCOSE is produced by PHOTOSYNETHSIS in green plant cells,  PRIMARY source of ENERGY in the cells of ALL living organisms Disaccharide o Form when two monosacchradies  bond together by condensation  (sucrose) or DEHYDRATION o Sucrose = common table SUGAR (sugar cane) o Condensation reaction = removal of a molecule of water during the  formation of larger molecule from smaller molecules
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course BOT 191 taught by Professor Smith during the Fall '11 term at Miami University.

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BOT EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE - BOTEXAM1STUDYGUIDE...

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