ART 154 Midterm Study Guide

ART 154 Midterm Study Guide - ISLAM Pre-Islamic Context...

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Islam population is about ¼ of the world Muhammad grew up in Mecca, last prophet – “seal of the prophets” Qur’an – holy book of Islam, was revealed over 22 years by an angel Mecca was an important trading center, founded on religion, Ka’ba (the cube) was founded here Ka’ba is associated with Abraham and Adam, once houses the ideals worshiped Muhammad and Islam posed threat to Ka‟ba and the tribes that controlled city/Ka‟ba Muslim calendar begins with year 622 Yuctan became Medina which was important for religion emigration of new community – Hidgra (A.H.) Umayyad conquests caused early Islamic community expansion After 100 years, Islam had become a world empire The majority of people in the Islamic empire were not Muslim The Byzantine and Sassanid Empires were the two super powers that dominated region when Islamic Empire was formed . Hellenism was embedded in these territories. Petra was a Hellenistic Arab city in Jordan under the Nabathien Kingdom. Columns and capitals noted. Rousafa was in Syria and had Roman inspirations. Byzantine mosaics where built by Great Alice in Constantinople. Christian Arab tribes built churches and monasteries using mosaics in Constantinople. Hagia Sophia was a basilica that used byzantine architecture, with material and architecture expression that loomed large in imagination Ancient Persian Empire – ancient Ctesiphon – remains of Ctesiphon capital called “Iwan-i- Kisra.” We see a monumental vault important to poetry as it served as the center of culture. It was decorated with an enormous carpet. Arabian remains found in Yemen (southern tip of Arabian Peninsula) thus many water ways. Queen of Sheba (Ancient Yemen) was legendary for her beauty. She visits Solomon. Mosques were inspired by the House of Muhammad Architecture was simple, meant to fulfill pragmatic need Not complexity covered by a ruff, courtyard that could be accessed by various entrances Square spaces were the bedrooms of Muhammad Masjid means to prostrate oneself, denoted to explain religious affiliation There are many types of mosques. Masjid/ Masjid Jami is the most important since it was a community congregation. “Friday Mosque” is another name since Friday is when the male Muslims are supposed to gather at the mosque to pray in order to reaffirm their role in the community. Community would talk about issues and reaffirm belief in their caliph. ISLAM – Pre-Islamic Context & General Info The Mosque
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Earliest mosques were formed in Garrison community/territory and built by the Empire. The rear wall of the mosque is called the quibla wall and it is the wall that people face when praying. Mihrab
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course ART 154 taught by Professor Anderson during the Fall '10 term at UNC.

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ART 154 Midterm Study Guide - ISLAM Pre-Islamic Context...

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