Political - Political Geography Political Geography The...

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Unformatted text preview: Political Geography Political Geography The study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena in their areal expression Geographers Use of the Words Geographers Use of the Words State and Nation State an independent political unit holding sovereignty over a defined territory and over all the people and activities within it Nation a culturally distinctive group of people occupying a particular region and bound together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity, beliefs, and customs Relationships Between Relationships Between States and Nations (a) nation­state (b) multinational state a state containing more than one nation (c) part­nation state a state ruling over a territory containing all the people of a nation and no others a single nation dispersed across and predominant in two or more states (d) stateless nation a people without a state The The Kurdish Nation Evolution of the Modern State Evolution of the Modern State Developed by European political philosophers in the 18th century people owe allegiance to a state and its people, rather than to a king or feudal lord Many states are the result of European expansion during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries colonizers imposed their arbitrary new administrative divisions of the land Discrepancies Discrepancies Between Ethnic Groups and National Boundaries in Africa Cultural boundaries were ignored by European colonial powers The result was ethnic diversity within countries and conflicts over borders Evolution of the Modern State Evolution of the Modern State The idea of separate statehood grew slowly at first 1776 – about 35 empires, kingdoms, and countries 1939 – approximately 70 2006 – nearly 200 15 newly independent countries replaced the former USSR Geographic Characteristics of States Geographic Characteristics of States Size Large states greater chance for useful resources vast areas that are sparsely populated and hard to integrate into the economy and society Small states more likely to have a culturally homogeneous population easier to develop transportation and communication systems have shorter boundaries to defend Ministates Ministates Totally or partially autonomous political units that are small in area and population More than 40 states have less than 1 million people Andorra has a total area of 468 km2 and a population of about 70,000 Pacific Ocean Ministates Geographic Characteristics of States Geographic Characteristics of States Shape Compact Elongated nearly compact but possesses one or more narrow extensions Fragmented long and narrow Prorupt roughly circular shape separated and discontinuous Perforated interrupted by a separate, independent state totally contained within its borders Special Cases of Fragmented and Perforated States Special Cases of Fragmented and Perforated States Exclave a territorial outlier of one state is located within another state Enclave a territory that is surrounded by, but is not part of, a state Spanish Exclaves in North Africa and France Nagorno­Karabakh, A Mountainous Enclave in Azerbaijan Nagorno­Karabakh, A Mountainous Enclave in Azerbaijan Geographic Characteristics of States Geographic Characteristics of States Location Absolute the exact position of a state in spatial coordinates of a grid system Relative the position of a state in relation to other states Landlocked States Landlocked States States that lack a seacoast and are surrounded by other states These states are at a commercial and strategic disadvantage, compared to countries that have ocean frontage Geographic Characteristics of States Geographic Characteristics of States Cores & Capitals Core area the original nucleus of a state containing the most developed areas Primate city a country’s leading city, much larger and functionally more complex than any other. Usually more than 2X the size of next largest. Geographic Characteristics of States Geographic Characteristics of States Cores & Capitals Unitary state the central government dictates the degree of local or regional autonomy and the nature of local governmental units Federal state the central government shares power with subunits Forward­thrust capital a capital city deliberately sited in a state’s frontier zone Canberra, Australia Canberra, Australia The capital was deliberately sited away from the country’s two largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne Planned capitals are often architectural showcases, providing a focus for national pride Canada’s Migratory Capital Canada’s Migratory Capital Boundaries Boundaries Natural (physical) boundaries those based on recognizable physiographic features Artificial (geometric) boundaries often a section of a parallel of latitude or meridian of longitude Several international borders run through the Several international borders run through the Himalayas. The mountain boundary between India and China has long been in dispute. Territorial Claims in Territorial Claims in Antarctica Seven countries claim sovereignty over portions of Antarctica, and those of Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom overlap The Antarctic Treaty of 1959 froze those claims for 30 years, banned further land claims, and made scientific research the primary use of the continent The treaty was extended for 50 years in 1991 Antarctica is neither a sovereign state nor a part of one The Four Corners Monument The Four Corners Monument Boundaries Classified by Settlement Boundaries Classified by Settlement Antecedent boundary drawn across an area before it is well populated Subsequent boundary drawn after the development of the cultural landscape Consequent boundary drawn to accommodate existing religious, linguistic, ethnic, or economic differences Superimposed boundary force upon existing cultural landscapes, a country, or a people by a conquering or colonizing power Relic boundary A former boundary that no longer functions as such Superimposed Superimposed Boundaries in Africa The colonial powers in 19th century Africa superimposed boundaries upon established African cultures without regard to the tradition, language, religion, or ethnic affiliation of those whom they divided Boundaries as Sources of Conflict Boundaries as Sources of Conflict Landlocked states Waterbodies as national boundaries Minority­group identification Resource disputes Geographic Sources of International Stress Geographic Sources of International Stress A map of a hypothetical state and potential trouble spots Regional Conflicts Regional Conflicts Gap Water Project (Southeastern Anatolia Project) Irrigation and hydropower 22 dams and 19 power plants on the Tigris and Euphrates Regional Conflicts Regional Conflicts Turkey: vows no disruption of the rivers Disagreement: Tigris (Syria) will drop by 40% Euphrates (Iraq) will drop by 80% Turkey will control flows Regional Conflicts Regional Conflicts Regional problem Syria and Turkey do not get along Syria supports Kurdish independence movements in Turkey Turkey has threatened to cut off Syria’s water Landlocked States Landlocked States About one­fifth of the world’s states are landlocked Bolivia Bolivia Like many other landlocked countries, Bolivia has gained access to the sea through arrangements with neighboring states Unlike most landlocked countries, however, Bolivia can access ports on two oceans The Disputed The Disputed Boundary Between Argentina and Chile in the Southern Andes The treaty establishing the boundary between the two countries preceded adequate exploration and mapping of the area, leaving its precise location in doubt The Basque Region The Basque Region Although the Basques were granted a measure of self­rule for their region, militant separatists in the Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA) want to see the establishment of an independent state U.S./Mexico Border U.S./Mexico Border To stem the flow of undocumented migrants entering California from Baja California, the United States, in 1993, constructed a fence 3 meters (10 ft) high along the border The Rumaila The Rumaila Oil Field Iraqi grievances over Kuwaiti drilling were partly responsible for Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990 Centripetal Forces Centripetal Forces Nationalism a sense of unity binding the people of a state together the Pledge of Allegiance is one way schools seek to instill a sense of national identity in students Centripetal Forces Centripetal Forces Unifying Institutions schools, armed forces, and churches develop a sense of commitment and cohesiveness Organization & Administration security, resource distribution, and equal opportunity develop public confidence Centripetal Forces Centripetal Forces Transportation & Communication fosters political integration by promoting economic and social interaction between areas Canada and the U.S. developed independent railway systems connecting their prairie regions with their national cores Centrifugal Forces Centrifugal Forces Organized religion Subnationalism group identification with a particular region of the state Devolution primary allegience is given to smaller traditional groups or nations Regionalism may compete with the state for people’s allegiance or oppose state policies the transfer of certain powers from the central government to separate political subdivisions Irridentism When a country asserts that a group living outside its borders belongs to it historically and culturally Regions in Western Europe Regions in Western Europe Seeking Autonomy Boundaries and Group Identity Boundaries and Group Identity Spain 2X the size of Oregon 16 Autonomous communities Regional/ethnic identity vs. national identity 15 Independent Countries of the Former 15 Independent Countries of the Former USSR By mid­1992, the 15 former Soviet constituent republics had declared their status as fully independent states, but those declarations did not assure the satisfaction of all separatist movements within them. Geopolitical confusion Geopolitical confusion Seccessionist and irredentist movements from complex motivations Revival of ethnic/national identity Dissatisfaction with economic/political situation Kashmir Kashmir After years of Buddhist and Hindu rule Kashmir was conquered by Muslims in the 14th cent. The British pacified Kashmir in 1846 and installed a Hindu prince to rule the predominantly Muslim region. India was partitioned in 1947 and Muslim forces from Pakistan invaded Kashmir. The two countries have battled over the region ever since. Cooperation Among States Cooperation Among States United Nations (UN) an organization that exercises power over countries The United Nations Convention on The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) A code of maritime law approved by the U.N. in 1982 that authorizes, among other provisions, territorial waters extending 200 nautical mile (370 km) as exclusive economic zones The 200 Nautical Mile Exclusive Economic The 200 Nautical Mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Claims of Coastal States Regional Alliances Regional Alliances Economic Alliances European Union (EU) North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) a bloc of European countries enjoying free trade and committed to a full political union unites Canada, the United States and Mexico in a regional free trade zone Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) a political, economic, and cultural organization of countries located in Southeast Asia The Original The Original “Inner Six” and “Outer Seven” of Europe the Inner Six created the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957 the Outer Seven joined in the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) to counteract the EEC today most are members of the European Union (EU) The 25 The 25 Members of the European Union (EU) as of January 2004 Western Western Hemisphere Economic Unions in 2004 The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Regional Alliances Regional Alliances Military & Political Alliances North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Warsaw Pact joined the USSR and its satellite countries of Eastern Europe Commonwealth of Nations a military bloc formed in 1949 an association of independent sovereign states, almost all of which are former territories of the British Empire Organization of American States (OAS) an international organization of the 35 independent nations of the Americas The NATO The NATO Military Alliance The Geography of The Geography of Representation Electoral geography the study of voting districts and voting patterns Redistricting the changing of electoral district/constituency boundaries in response to periodic census results Gerrymandering the drawing of voting district lines in ways that include or exclude specific groups of voters, so that one group gains an unfair advantage The Original The Original Gerrymander the term originated in 1811 from the shape of an electoral district formed in Massachusetts while Elbridge Gerry was governor when an artist added certain animal features, the district resembled a salamander and quickly came to be called a gerrymander Alternative Districting Strategies Alternative Districting Strategies Xs and Os might represent Republicans and Democrats, urban and rural voters, blacks and whites, or any other distinctive groups Political Political Fragmentation of Champaign County, Illinois boundaries of special­ purpose districts do not coincide with the standard major and minor civil divisions Voting Rights and Race Voting Rights and Race the irregularly shaped congressional voting districts represent a deliberate attempt to balance voting rights and race they have been called extreme examples of racial gerrymandering, however, and at least in part ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court Israeli­Lebanese Conflict Israeli­Lebanese Conflict Israeli – Palestinian 1967: Six Day War British partitioning Zionism: homeland for the Jewish people 1948 – UN mandate 56% to Israel 43% to Palestine Jerusalem International City 1949: 1st Arab­Israeli War Israel declares Jerusalem its capital Israel occupies: The Sinai The Golan Heights The West Bank 1978 Sinai returned Israeli settlements Intifada PLO Hamas Israel & Palestine Israel & Palestine Israel & Palestine Israel & Palestine Gaza Strip Pullout Gaza Strip Pullout August 2005 Ariel Sharon orders evacuation of 8,500 Jewish settlers Does this set a precedent for withdrawal from West Bank and East Jerusalem? Lebanon Lebanon Civil War 1975­1989 Mostly between Christians and Muslims 1979 ­ Israel occupies South Lebanon in response to attacks from across border 1982 – Israel invades again, Hezbollah is formed 2000 – Following numerous UN sanctions, Israel withdraws completely ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course GEOG 103 taught by Professor Cook during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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