HumanMigration_Globalization

HumanMigration_Globalization - Human Migration Human...

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Unformatted text preview: Human Migration Human Migration The Demographic Equation The Demographic Equation ► Population is a function of natural change ► (difference between births and deaths) net migration ► (difference between in­migration and out­migration) U.S. State Population Change, 1980­1990 U.S. State Population Change, 1980­1990 Waves of Immigration Waves of Immigration ► Three major waves of immigration into the U.S. 1st Wave: Irish & German immigrants 2nd Wave: Russian Jews, Italians, Polish 3rd Wave: Asian, Latin Migration Migration ► A relocation of both residential environment and activity space Principal Migrations of Recent Centuries Types of Migration Types of Migration ► Intercontinental Movements between continents ► Intracontinental and interregional Movements between countries and within countries ► Forced or involuntary Relocation decision is made solely by people other than the migrants themselves ► Reluctant Relocation is not forced, but necessary due to warfare, political problems, or ethnic purging ► Voluntary Individuals choose to relocate to because of opportunities offered in the new place Inter­ and Intra­continental Inter­ and Intra­continental Migrations in Recent Centuries Forced Migrations of Southeastern American Indians Forced Migrations of Southeastern American Indians Refugee Flows in Africa Refugee Flows in Africa Incentives to Migrate Incentives to Migrate ► Push Factors Negative home conditions ► Pull Factors Positive attractions of destination Importance of remittances Importance of remittances Money sent back to family in home country Importance of remittances Importance of remittances Migration in the United States Migration in the United States North America: Migration North America: Migration ► Economy and Culture Industrialization ► Rural to urban migration ► Manufacturing jobs Social impact ► Draining of rural population ► Women’s liberation North America: Migration North America: Migration ► Race, Economy and Migration African American Migration ► 1900­1950 ► South to Industrial Cities ► Loss of agricultural jobs North America: Migration North America: Migration ► Rustbelt/Sunbelt Migration End of industry (rustbelt) New investment in services (sunbelt) ► Retirees ► Service Economy Major Paths of the Early Migration of Germans to America Major Paths of the Early Migration of Germans to America Percentage of 2000 population over 5 years of Percentage of 2000 population over 5 years of age with a different residence than in 1999 Barriers to Migration Barriers to Migration ► Physical Barriers seas, mountains, swamps, deserts ► Economic Barriers and Cost Factors cost of traveling and establishing residence, expense of maintaining contact with those left behind ► Cultural Factors family, religious, ethnic, and community relationships ► Political Barriers restrictions on immigration and emigration Undocumented Migration Rate to Undocumented Migration Rate to Arizona Patterns of Migration Patterns of Migration ► Migration Fields An area or areas that dominate a locale’s in­ and out­ migration patterns ► Channelized Patterns Migrations paths linking areas that are socially and economically tied to one another ► Return Migration The return of migrants to the regions from which they emigrated ► Hierarchical Migration The tendency for individuals to move from small places to larger ones The Migration Fields of Florida and California The Migration Fields of Florida and California Channelized Migration Channelized Migration Flows from the Rural South to Midwestern Cities of Medium Size Globalization Globalization ► Increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world Economic change Environmental change Political change Cultural change Globalization Globalization ► Places and people are interconnected and interdependent Col­Tan & The Congo Commodity Chains Commodity Chains ► Globalization of economic processes ► Results in the ordering of global economic space Globalization Globalization ► Resulting from: Technological factors ­ ► Advances in communications ► Advances in information handling ► Advances in transportation Economic factors – ► Multinational corporations ► Trade associations between countries Political factors – ► Supranational governments (EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, etc.) Globalization Globalization ► Long history ► Bretton Woods Meetings (1944) Postwar planning ► New world order Democratic Capitalist ► New Institutions Protect global stability Globalization: Globalization: The Three Pillars ► IMF (International Monetary Fund): International economic cooperation. Macroeconomic focus The dollar = standard of value Globalization: Globalization: The Three Pillars ► General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): ► Following Uruguay Round GATT becomes World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995. Promote worldwide trade. Trade conferences Free Trade Globalization: The Three Pillars Globalization: The Three Pillars ► World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development): Post WWII European investment. Microeconomic focus Investment in the developing world. Globalization Globalization ► Problem Global economy allows money to move ►People can’t Borders and boundaries ►Business relocation Jobs move ► Laborers can’t follow Business inefficiency The World­System The World­System ► Globalization How did we get to Bretton Woods? ► Interdependence ► Economics Politics Environment Historical Wallerstein: 15th C. Economic = longer The World­System The World­System ► Exploration Economic opportunity ► Profit from variation ► Renaissance: The age of discovery 1550: most of the world’s coasts mapped Scientific journeys ► James Cook ► Gathering broad information The World­System The World­System ► Exploration as economic Centers of exploration structuring system ► Advantages Core regions ► Dominate trade ► Advanced tech. ► Diverse economies The World­System The World­System ► Semiperipheral regions Exploit peripheral regions Exploited by core The World­System The World­System ► Peripheral regions Poor trade relations Low tech. Narrow economies The World­System The World­System ► Alternative view Regional The World­System The World­System ► Economic foundation ► Other foundations = different results Environment ► China = core ► Other scales Differences within nations Modernization Theory Modernization Theory ► Rostow’s stages of economic growth ► Assumes that poverty and lack of development are the problems Also assumes that poor countries need to emulate Western growth Developmentalism Dependency Theory Dependency Theory ► Core­periphery relationship is the problem Economic exploitation of the periphery Caused underdevelopment Core grew as a result of this exploitation Periphery can only grow by separating from global capitalistic structure Independent growth Feminist Theory Feminist Theory ► Ignores female roles in economic development Women might experience development differently Also requires recognition of female identities, access to power & resources Many successful development programs target female economic involvement Neoliberalism Neoliberalism ► Three Pillars ► Structural adjustment Privatization Export production Removal of import restrictions Encourage foreign investment Reduce government budgets ►Food subsidies, welfare programs, health care, education usually first to suffer Sustainable & Radical Theory Sustainable & Radical Theory ► Sustainable growth ► Reliance on: Renewable energy & resources Management & regulation of economy Organization of society ► Geared toward: An economy that can be maintained over time ► Radical theory ► Localization Recognizes failure of development policies Recognizes core dominance Post­structural or post­ modern view: ► Different groups in different places have different access to power and resources Key Factors of Globalization Key Factors of Globalization ► New international division of labor Decline of U.S. as an industrial producer Decentralization of manufacturing production Specializations within the core Outsourcing to Third World ► Internationalization of finance Global banking & financial markets World cities Key Factors of Globalization Key Factors of Globalization ► Economic Integration Global Banking Transnational Corporations (TNC’s) Global Marketing ►Global products Coke is one of the most recognized words in the world Political Integration Political Integration ► Political Integration Growth of Supranational Organizations ►NATO ►UN ►WTO – World Trade Organization ►EU ►ASEAN ►Growth of NGO’s Cultural Integration Cultural Integration ► Worldwide spread of ideas, languages, products etc. Dominance of Western lifestyles ►Leads to adoption or resentment Uneveness of Globalization Uneveness of Globalization Uneveness of Globalization Uneveness of Globalization Key Factors of Globalization Key Factors of Globalization ► New technology systems Energy technologies Manufacturing & management technologies Communications & transportation ► Time­space convergence ► Homogenization of consumer markets World products Materialism Advertising & entertainment Fast & Slow World Fast & Slow World ► Fast world: Wealthy, connected to and involved in the global economy. Producers and consumers, top 15%. ► Slow world: Poor, disenfranchised, limited involvement in the global economy. Manual labor, low education, 85% of the world’s population. ► Two scales: Global – ► The Western world, developed nations, and the developing world. Local – Wealthy suburbs as opposed to inner city slums or shantytowns. ► Poor rural areas, remote and agricultural. ► The Banana Wars The Banana Wars ► Lomé Convention (1975) African, Caribbean, & Pacific (ACP) bananas are preferentially in Europe ► Windward Islands Smaller, sweeter Family farms (60% of money circulated on Dominica is banana related) ► Latin American Bananas Larger, more neutral flavor Grown on plantations Multinationals (Chiquita, Dole, Del Monte) Banana Wars Banana Wars ► 1990’s Carl Lindner CEO of Chiquita Brands Itl. donates over $1,000,000 to both political parties ► Asks U.S. government to appeal to WTO to end EU support of ACP bananas ► 1999 – WTO rules in favor of U.S. after U.S. threatens a 100% tariff on all European goods ► EU must end all tariffs and special treatment by January 2006 ► 1 in 10 bananas in Britain are now Caribbean grown Banana Wars Banana Wars ► What now for Windward Islands? More tourism Offshore banking Cannabis, cocaine, trafficking, crime Unsure future ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course GEOG 103 taught by Professor Cook during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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