Culture_Part1 - Culture Culture What is cultural geography?...

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Unformatted text preview: Culture Culture What is cultural geography? What is cultural geography? The meaning of culture For this course defined as learned collective human behavior, as opposed to instinctive, or inborn behavior Learned traits Cultural geography: the study of spatial variations among cultural groups and the spatial functioning of society. What is cultural geography? What is cultural geography? Bridges the social and earth sciences Seeks a integrative view of humankind in its physical environment Appears less focused than most other disciplines making it difficult to define Cultural geography Cultural geography Emphasis on cultural phenomena that may vary or remain constant from place to place Explains how humans function spatially What is Culture? What is Culture? Specialized behavior patterns, understandings, and adaptations that summarize the way of life of a group of people Components of Culture Components of Culture Culture Traits Units of learned behavior such as language, tools, games, etc. Culture Complexes Culture traits that are functionally interrelated The formerly migratory Maasai of eastern Africa now largely sedentary, partially urbanized, and frequently owners of fenced farms. But not always. cattle formed the traditional basis of Maasai culture and were the evidence of wealth and social status. They provided as well the milk and blood important in the Maasai diet. Components of Culture Components of Culture Culture Regions Portion of the earth’s surface occupied by people sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics Generalized U.S. Culture Regions Generalized U.S. Culture Regions Many different formal regions can be created Depends on traits Geographer’s intuition culture regions culture regions What Defines a Region? What Defines a Region? Why not Barbeque! Components of Culture Components of Culture Culture Realm A set of culture regions showing related culture complexes and landscapes Regionally discrete areas that are more alike internally than they are like other realms Culture Realms of the Modern World Culture Realms of the Modern World Interaction of People & Environment Interaction of People & Environment Environmental Determinism Possibilism Physical environment by itself shapes humans, their actions, and their thoughts The viewpoint that people, not environments, are the dynamic forces of cultural development Cultural landscapes The earth’s surface as modified by human action Environmental Determinism Environmental Determinism Tropical Climates: Lazy, Promiscuous, Unintelligent; Neurasthenia Temperate: Sharper minds Imperialism, Racism Cultural Landscapes Cultural Landscapes Carl O. Sauer “A cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a culture group. Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium. The cultural landscape the result.” Landscape “is never simply a natural space, a feature of the natural environment.[E]very landscape is the place where we establish our own human organization of space and time” Cultural landscape Cultural landscape The visible, material landscape that cultural groups create in inhabiting the Earth Cultures shape landscapes out of the raw materials provided by the Earth Each landscape uniquely reflects the culture that created it Much can be learned about a culture by carefully observing its created landscape Cultural landscape Cultural landscape Accumulation of human artifacts, old and new Can reveal much about a past forgotten by present inhabitants Landscapes also reveal messages about present­day inhabitants and cultures Reflect tastes, values, aspirations, and fears in tangible form Spatial organization of settlements and architectural form of structures can be interpreted as expression of values and beliefs of the people Can serve as a means to study nonmaterial aspects of culture Cultural landscape Cultural landscape How architecture reflects past and present values of landscape Example of centrally located, tall structures built of steel, brick, or stone Example of medieval European cathedrals and churches that dominated the landscape The Physical and Cultural Landscapes in Juxtaposition The Physical and Cultural Landscapes in Juxtaposition Cape Town, South Africa The Physical and Cultural Landscapes in The Physical and Cultural Landscapes in Juxtaposition Subsystems of Culture Subsystems of Culture Technological Subsystem Composed of the material objects and the techniques of their use by means of which people are able to live Artifacts The material objects we employ to carry on our activities Differences in Technological Traditions Differences in Technological Traditions Percentage of Labor Force Engaged in Percentage of Labor Force Engaged in Agriculture Gross National Income Per Capita (GNI) Gross National Income Per Capita (GNI) Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Comparative Developmental Levels Comparative Developmental Levels Subsystems of Culture Subsystems of Culture Sociological Subsystem The sum of those expected and accepted patterns of interpersonal relations that find their outlet in economic, political, military, religious, kinship, and other associations Sociofacts The religious, political, educational, and other institutions that constitute the sociological subsystem of culture Societies Preparing Their Children for Membership in the Culture Group Societies Preparing Their Children for Membership in the Culture Group Hunter­Gatherer Lifestyle Hunter­Gatherer Lifestyle Subsystems of Culture Subsystems of Culture Ideological Subsystem Consists of the ideas, beliefs, and knowledge of a culture and of the ways in which they are expressed in speech or other forms of communication Mentifacts Abstract belief systems that tell us what we out to believe, what we should value, and how we ought to act Clothing as Clothing as Artifacts (a), Sociofacts (b), and Mentifacts (c) Cultural integration Cultural integration Cultures = complex wholes NOT series of unrelated traits Cultures = integrated systems in which parts fit together causally All cultural aspects are functionally interdependent Changing > accommodating change in others Understanding one facet of culture leads to study the variations in other facets and how they are causally interrelated and integrated Cultural integration Cultural integration The influence of religious beliefs Voting behavior Diet and shopping patterns Type of employment and social standing Hinduism segregates people into social classes (castes), and specifies what forms of livelihood are appropriate for each Mormon faith forbids consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco, and other products, thereby influencing both diet and shopping patterns Cultural integration Cultural integration If improperly used can lead the geographer to cultural determinism such as: physical environment is inconsequential as an influence on culture culture offers all the answers for spatial variations nature is passive while people and culture are the active forces Culture Change Culture Change Innovation Implies changes to a culture that result from ideas created within the social group itself and adopted by the culture Culture Hearth The source regions of social and technical revolutions from which key elements diffuse to influence surrounding regions Chief Centers of Plant and Chief Centers of Plant and Animal Domestication Early Culture Hearths of the Early Culture Hearths of the Old World and the Americas Early North American Culture Hearths Early North American Culture Hearths The Trend of Innovation Through Human History The Trend of Innovation Through Human History Culture Change Culture Change Spatial Diffusion The process by which a concept, a practice, an innovation, or a substance spreads from its point of origin to new territories Syncretism The process of the fusion of old and new ideas and artifacts The Amish community of east central Illinois shuns all modern The Amish community of east central Illinois shuns all modern luxuries of the majority, secular society around them. Culture Change Culture Change Acculturation The process by which one culture group undergoes a major modification by adopting many of the characteristics of another, usually dominant, culture group Amalgamation theory The concept that multiethnic societies become a merger of the culture traits of their member groups, leads to: Assimilation: The social process of merging into a composite culture, losing separate ethnic or social identity and becoming culturally homogenized Acculturation, acquiring the capability to function within the dominant culture while retaining one's original culture Mixed Salad Amalgamation Amalgamation theory, Assimilation Melting Pot Cultural integration Cultural integration Cultures = complex wholes NOT series of unrelated traits Cultures = integrated systems in which parts fit together causally All cultural aspects are functionally interdependent on one another Changing one element requires accommodating change in others To understand one facet of culture, geographers must study the variations in other facets and how they are causally interrelated and integrated Baseball, an import from America, is one of Baseball, an import from America, is one of the most popular sports in Japan. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course GEOG 103 taught by Professor Cook during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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