Culture_Part2 - Language and Dialects Language...

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Language and Dialects Language an organized system of speech by which people  communicate with each other Standard Language the way a language is spoken and written  according to formal rules of diction and grammar Official Language the one in which government business is  conducted, official records kept, signs posted, etc.  Dialects minor variations within languages
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Europe in Africa Through Official Languages
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Fig.7.17 In their mountainous homeland, the Basques have maintained a linguistic  uniqueness despite more than 2000 years of encirclement by dominant lowland  speakers of Latin or Romance languages. This sign of friendly farewell gives its  message in both Spanish and the Basque language, Euskara.
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Dialects Associated With “Pancake” Differences in  pronunciation, vocabulary,  word meanings, and other  language characteristics  help define linguistic  geography
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U.S. Dialect Regions
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U.S. Dialects Regions
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Gullah as Language Gullah speakers  are concentrated  on the Sea Islands  and the coastal  mainland of South  Carolina and  Georgia The isolation that  promoted their  linguistic distinction  is now being  eroded
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Pidgins and Creoles Pidgin a system of communication which has grown up  among people who do not share a common  language Creole a pidgin language that has survived long enough to  become a mother tongue More complex grammatical structure
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The World’s Major Languages 6000 to 7000 different languages 30 are spoken by nearly 90% of world’s population 8 are spoken by more than 50% of world’s  population Mandarin, English, Hindi, and Spanish are the  most spoken English is the world’s  lingua franca
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Linguists’ estimate 31,000  to 300,000 languages  ever spoken on Earth  Dead languages far  outnumber the living and  one or two are lost every  week Up to 3000 languages are  now “endangered” More than 100 new  languages have been  created over the past four  centuries World Distribution of Living Languages
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Africa’s Endangered Languages
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Languages Spoken by More Than 40 Million People, 2004
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World Language Families (Western Hemisphere) Language Family a group of  languages  thought to have a  common origin in  a single, earlier  tongue Within a language  family, there are  subfamilies, or  branches subfamilies often  show similarities  in sounds,  grammatical  structure, and  vocabulary
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World Language Families (Eastern Hemisphere)
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Indo-European Language Family Spoken by about half of the 
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course GEOG 103 taught by Professor Cook during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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Culture_Part2 - Language and Dialects Language...

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