Maps - Introduction of Geography Map: a 2-D representation...

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Introduction of Geography Jiayu Wang Department of Geography, University of South Carolina Map: a 2-D representation of the world or part of it, in two dimensions Globe: a 3-D representation of the entire earth surface. Location Referencing Systems Coordinates: Latitude and Longitude Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Latitude Figure 1.10 Latitude the angular distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees ranging from 0 ° (the equator) to 90 ° (the North and South Poles) Longitude Figure 1.12 Longitude the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian measured in degrees ranging from 0 ° (the prime meridian) to 180 ° (the International Date Line) X Y Equator: X Prime Meridian: Y (+x, +y) (East, North) (+x, -y) (East, South) (-x, -y) (West, North) (-x, +y) (West, North) Geographic coordinates may be written in one of the fol owing ways: Degrees, Minutes, and Seconds (DMS) Example Little Rock, Arkansas X = Longitude: 92 degrees W 45’ 33” Y = Latitude: 34 degrees N 32’ 52” Decimal Degrees: Example X = -92.759 Y = 34.547
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UTM Zones •UTM divides earth’s surface between 84 ° N and 80 ° S into 60 zones about 360 km wide. •Each of 60 zones mapped onto transverse mercator projection. UTM Zones Datum and Ellipsoids Datum - represented by ellipsoid Reference ellipsoid examples: x Clarke 1866 x GRS 80 x WGS 84 Figure of the Earth NAD27: Clarke 1866 ellipsoid origin in Kansas Datum Origin on Surface of Earth Ellipsoid Model based on less precise surveys NAD27: Leaving Behind Invented Space Travel Increasing accuracy of surveys Shift from optical surveys to a mathematical model of the Earths shape
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WGS84: WGS84 ellipsoid origin center of earth The origins of the WGS84 and NAD83 ellipsoids are at the center of the earth’s mass, which makes them ideal for a GPS datum Matching Datums Revenge of the Shift I use GPS for
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course GEOG 103 taught by Professor Cook during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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Maps - Introduction of Geography Map: a 2-D representation...

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