Biology 26 - Biozones Distribution of species on Earth The...

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Biozones
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Distribution of species on Earth The land has more species because it has greater environmental variability than the ocean Most ocean species are benthic because of greater environmental variability compared to pelagic environments
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Plankton are the organisms which float in the water and have no ability to propel themselves against a current. They can be divided into phytoplankton (plants) and zooplankton (animals). Nekton are active swimmers and include marine fish, reptiles, mammals, birds and others. Benthos are the organisms which live on the bottom (epifauna) or within the bottom sediments (infauna). Some organisms cross from one lifestyle to another during their life, for example being planktonic early in life and benthic later. 9-3 Classification of Lifestyle
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Inhabitants of  Pelagic   Environment > 5000 species Holoplankton   are organisms that are  planktonic for their entire life cycle.  Examples of holoplankton include diatoms,  radiolarians, dinoflagellates, foraminifera,  amphipods, krill, copepods, salps, and  jellyfish. Meroplankton  organisms that are planktonic  for only a part of their life cycles, usually the  larval stage. Examples of meroplankton include the larvae  of sea urchins, starfish, crustaceans, marine  worms, and most fish. Nekton Examples are adult krill, small fish, whales,  and tuna
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Inhabitants of  Epipelagic  or  Photic Zone Most animals are found  there, yet only 10% ocean  volume   Environment:  Light, Well  Mixed, Nutrients Food Source:  primary  production from  Phytoplankton Upper 200-300 m water column; high diversity, mostly small and transparent organisms; many herbivores
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Inhabitants of  Epipelagic  or  Photic Zone Each  Epipelagic  zone is  characterized by temperature  and density associated with  ocean circulation  environment. Example of Krill Distribution
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Krill Distribution Patterns  (in the Epipelagic Zone)
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Inhabitants of  Mesopelagic Environment:  Dim Light Food Source:  Animals  relay on primary production  from Photic Zone 300 – 1000 m Oxygen Minimum Zone: 400 – 800 m depth, accumulation of fecal material due to density gradient, attract high bacterial growth, which in turn attracts many bacterial and larger grazers; strong respiration reduces O2 content from 4-6 mg l-1 to < 2 mg l-1
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Some mesopelagic fishes: (a) loosejaw, Aristostomias ; (b) spookfish, Opistoproctus; and (c) hatchetfish, Argyropelecus . All are 5-20 cm in length. Inhabitants of  Mesopelagic (a) (b) (c) Larger than epipelagic relatives; large forms of gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfish, appendicularians) due to lack of wave action; some larger species partly herbivorous with nightly migration into epipelagic regimes
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Inhabitants of  Bathypelagic Environment:  NO Light Food Source:  Small animals/fish  from mesopelagic Mostly Prey-Predator  Environment
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A few fish of the deep sea, shown at their typical depths. Most
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Biology 26 - Biozones Distribution of species on Earth The...

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