Lecture 2 SPS 11

Lecture 2 SPS 11 - Therenaissance(1450s 1600s 1 2...

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1/27/2011 1 B d th it l th d Bacon and the experimental method Induction and Newton’s “I do not feign hypotheses” 1 The renaissance (1450s – 1600s) 2 Edgar Zilsel’s sociological thesis Modern science emerged from the rise of the artist engineers and their cooperation with renaissance humanists. The latter provided the systematic abilities complementing the artist engineers. 3 Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum (1620) Inquire what new things could be known and how they could be practically applied. Science as an egalitarian and collectivist enterprise. Laying the philosophical grounds for the new experimental method developed by Galileo. 4 Avoiding error of judgment There are more logical fallacies than the formal ones (logic classically denoted methodology). Bacon’s idols of the Mind 1 Idols of the Tribe: tendency of human beings to perceive 1. more order in the world than there actually is 2. Idols of the Cave: individual weaknesses 3. Idols of the Marketplace: received language and terminology might be inappropriate. 4. Idols of the Theatre: philosophical systems that incorporate mistaken methods. 5 Experimental method 1. Free yourself from the idols. 2. Gather as much information as possible about particular states of affairs. 3. Build up stepwise general statements from particular ones 4. Manipulate the conditions of the experiment to check for counterfactuals (when effect is absent).
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Lecture 2 SPS 11 - Therenaissance(1450s 1600s 1 2...

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