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Recap for Exam 1 SPS 11

Recap for Exam 1 SPS 11 - 1 2 late16th andearly17th century...

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2/12/2011 1 1 2 The scientific revolution late 16 th and early 17 th century Abandonment of the Aristotelian world view Goal is accurate and precise prediction of physical systems systems. New technologies: microscope and telescope. A major breakthrough were direct observations, e.g. of Venus’s phases. To squeeze our precise numbers from Newton needed a while, until mathematics could follow up. (Laplace) Verification of basic parameters of solar system. 3 The Aristotelian world view (in anachronistic form) Earth and Heavens were completely different. Imperfect (friction) vs. perfect (geometric) motion. Doctrine of natural place. Lead to a pretty clumsy cosmology, though the basic forms were supposed to be simple and perfect. 4 Four Aristotelian causes They are solicited by why questions. 1. Efficient cause: Glass blower produces it 2. Final cause: Purpose of the glass, e.g., drinking 3. Formal cause: Specific form 4. Material cause: Matter the glass is made of. Combinations are possible. In the modern era, 3. and 4. became less relevant. There are only observation and no variation of conditions, as we typically encounter in experiments. 5 The Aristotelian Cosmos It’s not just circular motion. Neither is the Earth in the Center nor the the Center, nor the planet on a circular orbit. Every planet has its own theory. 6
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2/12/2011 2 The Copernican Revolution On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres, 1543 Sun became the center. Drastic gestalt switch and simplification, but not fully correct. 7 What do the discoveries mean? As scholasticism, the Aristotelian world view presented a coherent systematic doctrine that had made to agree perfectly with the bible. The church would have agreed to consider Copernicus’ work a convenient assumption, a mathematical fiction. But many understood it as an issue of scientific fact, about metaphysical reality, and rejected such instrumentalism. Any scientific fact is always part of a certain world view, which at the time was non scientific in the modern sense. 8 9 Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum (1620) Inquire what new things could be known and how they could be practically applied. Science as a egalitarian and collectivist enterprise. Laying the philosophical grounds for the new experimental method developed by Galileo. 10 Criticism of the syllogistic method Aristotelian syllogistics, and deductive logic in general, cannot tell us more than is already in the premises. Thus all justified knowledge is limited to the necessary insofar as we assume strong principle such necessary, insofar as we assume strong principle, such as the doctrine of natural place and some intuitively true axioms in Euclidean geometry.
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Recap for Exam 1 SPS 11 - 1 2 late16th andearly17th century...

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