Homework No. 2 Guideline
This is a solution guide; in certain cases it may not show the complete details, and in certain
cases there can be other answers which are also correct.
Please note that correct answers do not have to be as long as the answers shown here for
1. Based on what you have learned so far in chapters 1 to 4, what are four examples of reasons (one
from each chapter) that an ICT project might fail?
: An ICT project could fail due to a failure to adapt to technological pressures, more
specifically “Information Overload.” If a company is producing more data/information than it
can effectively handle, orders could be misplaced or sent to the wrong customers, leading to a
loss of credibility for the company and a definite failure on the part of ICT.
: Another reason an ICT project might fail is because of human errors classified as
unintentional acts. For example on January 31, 2009, during the morning in the United States, all
Google search results were flagged with a caution phrase that stated, “This site may harm your
computer”. This error was caused by one of Google’s programmers who updated a malicious
website list and accidentally made an error. Although Google’s web site reliability team fixed the
problem quickly, human errors are impossible to completely eliminate due to the critiques and
records many people have written about this incident.
: A third reason an ICT project might fail is because of cyber-terrorism. This is when
unauthorized individuals gain access to a target’s computer systems, via Internet, and cause
severe disruptions and real harm usually for a political agenda. For example in 2007, many
distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks took place against Estonia disabling many web sites
and disrupting ICT projects from the government ministries, newspapers, political parties,
companies, and banks.
: A fourth reason an ICT project might fail is because databases and database
management systems (DBMSs) are not managed carefully. Data security, quality, and integrity
are very important for a project to function as desired. Therefore, if the databases do not have
the essential security measures in place to deter attacks and mistakes, then the ICT project will
be vulnerable to fail. For example, Cigna Corporation used a “model-me-after” approach in
order to determine what data employees had access to through the database. This was a major
problem because it allowed employees access to more information than they needed.
Fortunately, Cigna Corporation corrected this problem by adopting other security measures.
2. For the case of New York Life (3
ed. pp. 67-9):