24401 - Technical and Operational issues in Pediatric...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–11. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Technical and Operational issues in Pediatric HIV/AIDS DR. KANUPRIYA CHATURVEDI DR. S.K. CHATURVEDI LESSON OBJECTIVES To have an understanding of the magnitude of the problem of Paediatric AIDS Problems and challenges related to Paediatric HIV/AIDS Response to Paediatric AIDS with special response to India INTRODUCTION HIV is the greatest health crisis the world faces today. Estimated 40million people living with HIV 2.7 million children under 15 years are estimated to be infected with HIV Global Scenario HIV is the greatest health crisis the world faces today. Estimated 40 million people living with HIV 2.7 million children under 15 years are estimated to be infected with HIV 570,000 children died of AIDS in 2005 Children account for 18% of the 3.1 million AIDS deaths Only 40,000 or 4% of the approximately one million people now on treatment are children . Indian Scenario Estimated 202,000 children affected by HIV/AIDS. New cohort of approximately 50-60,000 HIV infected infants is added every year Less than 10% of HIV-positive expectant mothers are benefiting from ARV prophylaxis Aetiology Caused by the Human Immunodefiency virus Types I and II Type I - Worldwide Type II - Common in West African Transmission- Majority (90%) infected children acquire the infection through MTCT- This occurs during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding In absence of any intervention, the risk of MTCT is 15 30% in non breast feeding populations Breastfeeding increases the risk by 5 20% to a total of 20 45%. MTCT rates are <5% in US and Europe with access of appropriate treatment- In utero 25 45% - Intrapartum 65 70% - most rapid course- Postpartum 12 15% Other Means of Transmission Blood transfusions, blood products and organ/tissue transplants Contaminated needles Scarification marks ? Sexual intercourse Factors Affecting MTCT (Maternal) High maternal HIV RNA level Low maternal CD4+ T-lymphocyte count Chorioamnionitis Maternal vitamin A deficiency and malnutrition Co exciting sexually transmitted disease Urea of antiretroviral therapy Clinical states of mother Interpartum hemorrhage Vaginal delivery Artificial rapture of membranes Rapture of membranes >4hours Fetal scalp monitoring Episiotomy Transmission Through Breastfeeding Risk is 14% if sero conversion occurs before birth Risk is 29% if during breastfeeding Highest in the first 6 months of life but continues throughout breastfeeding...
View Full Document

Page1 / 33

24401 - Technical and Operational issues in Pediatric...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 11. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online