32331 - ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (HIV infection,...

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ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (HIV infection, AIDS ± Dr. Rasha Salama PhD. Community Medicine Suez Canal University Egypt
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Globally, AIDS caused an estimated 3.1 million deaths in 2003 (2.5–3.5 million± The epidemic has continued growing, with estimates of 5 million new infections (4.2– 5.8 million± and 2.5 million children (2.1–2.9 million± living with HIV/AIDS.
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Identification Emergence was in 1981 of a cluster of diseases associated with loss of cellular immunity in adults who had no obvious reason for presenting such immune deficiencies. Within several weeks to several months after infection with HIV, many persons develop an acute self-limited mononucleosis-like illness lasting for a week or two. They may then be free of clinical signs or symptoms for months or years before other clinical manifestations develop.
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AIDS Associated Disease Categories 1. Gastrointestinal: Cause most of illness and death of late AIDS. Symptoms : Diarrhea Wasting (extreme weight loss) Abdominal pain Infections of the mouth and esophagus. Pathogens : Candida albicans , cytomegalovirus, Microsporidia, and Cryptosporidia.
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AIDS Associated Disease Categories 2. Respiratory: 70% of AIDS patients develop serious respiratory problems. Partial list of respiratory problems associated with AIDS: Bronchitis Pneumonia Tuberculosis Lung cancer Sinusitis Pneumonitis
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AIDS Associated Disease Categories 3. Neurological: Opportunistic diseases and tumors of central nervous system. Symptoms many include: Headaches, peripheral nerve problems, and AIDS dementia complex (Memory loss, motor problems, difficulty concentration, and paralysis).
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AIDS Associated Disease Categories 4. Skin Disorders: 90% of AIDS patients develop skin or mucous membrane disorders. Kaposi’s sarcoma 1/3 male AIDS patients develop KS Most common type of cancer in AIDS patients Herpes zoster (shingles) Herpes simplex Thrush Invasive cervical carcinoma 5. Eye Infections: 50-75% patients develop eye conditions. CMV retinitis Conjunctivitis Dry eye syndrome
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Extensive tumor lesions of Kaposis’s sarcoma in AIDS patient. Source: AIDS, 1997
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Infectious agent Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV±, Retrovirus. Two serologically and geographically distinct types with similar epidemiological characteristics, HIV-1 and HIV-2, have been identified. The pathogenicity of HIV-2 may be lower than that of HIV-1 lower rates of mother-to-child transmission for HIV-2.
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Structure of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV is a Retrovirus
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Occurrence AIDS was first recognized as a distinct clinical entity in 1981;, however, isolated cases appear to have occurred during the 1970s and even earlier in several areas (Africa, Europe, Haiti, USA±. Of the estimated 40 million persons (34–46 million±
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32331 - ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (HIV infection,...

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