4771 - Zoonotic Pathogens: An Introduction Dr. Emilo DeBess...

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Zoonotic Pathogens: An Introduction Dr. Emilo DeBess Oregon Health Division Dr. McKinley Thomas Augusta State University
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Zoonotic Diseases ...cause infections in animals and can be transmitted to humans …are typically endemic and occur in a natural foci However, ecologic changes and meteriologic or climate events can promote epidemic expansion of the host and geographic range.
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History Interactions between animals and humans have occurred since the beginning of time. As animals became domesticated and a close bonds developed between animals and humans, the occurrence of zoonotic diseases increased.
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Significant Zoonitic Pandemics 1700s, Mongols invaded Europe Mongols carried plague with them This lead to “black death” or plague pandemic Killed 1/3 of European population
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Significant Zoonitic Pandemics Early 1900’s “Spanish flu” transmitted from pigs to humans Decimated 20 million people worldwide Continues to pose a threat to humans
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Contemporary Threats Potential Human Pathogens E. coli 0157H7 Caliciviruses (evolved from the sea) Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) also known as “mad cow disease”
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Etiology Today’s threat involving zoonotic diseases is considered to be partly due to human involvement in which the artificial multiplication of these pathogens can be used as biological terrorism.
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Prevalence Largely Unknown Both serological studies and anecdotal discussion have been used to generate estimates 1997 a study trying to asses the prevalence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and B. quintana was done at a veterinary conference. The results indicated that 7.1% of the veterinary population had antibodies which was no different from the general population studies at an earlier time.
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Believed More Common Ringworm caused by Trychophitum species . believed to be heavily under diagnosed / not reported More prevalent among children
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Common Zoonotic Diseases Bacterial Plague Cat Scratch Fever Salmonellosis Parasitic Toxoplasmosis Ring Worm Viral Hantavirus Prion BSE
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Exudates from buboes or respiratory secretions and sputum are highly contagious to humans Most cases of human pneumonic plague in the last two decades were acquired from infected cats Owners should control fleas on their pets and keep pets away from wildlife Plague in Domestic Animals
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Plague in History Pandemics in history involving Europe, Asia, Africa “The Black Death,” thought to be caused by displeasure of the gods or other supernatural powers, heavenly disturbances The etiologic agent, Yersinia pestis , first isolated in 1894 (Yersin and Kitasato)
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Cat Scratch Disease One estimate by the Centers for Disease Control
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course HIST 312 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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4771 - Zoonotic Pathogens: An Introduction Dr. Emilo DeBess...

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