12261 - Analysis of Malaria Incidence Altitude and Rainfall...

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Analysis of Malaria Incidence, Altitude, and Rainfall a Study in the Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS) District, West Timor, Indonesia ERMI NDOEN* AND TITIK RESPATI GILARSI**
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Introduction In Indonesia, malaria is one of the killer diseases along with TB. WHO estimates that the malaria burden in Indonesia is about 6 million clinical cases and 700 deaths per year (Laihad, 2000). Now, more than 43 million people live in malaria endemic areas. The Annual Malaria Report in 1998 showed that there were more than 3.5 million clinical cases of malaria with 300 deaths in Indonesia (Laihad, 2000). The numbers of malaria blood examinations were 1,851,819 slides, with 209,505 (11.31 %) positive slides (MOH of RI, 1999).
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Malaria causes enormous problems, however the ability to overcome these problems is blocked by the scarcity of data and the lack of understanding of the situation. Detailed data of malaria risk and severity, and fundamental perspectives of where (distribution); why (environmental determinants); how (transmission intensity) and when (seasonality) malaria occur, do not exist or are very limited. Some of the potential environmental factors that are closely related to the malaria incidence are rainfall, temperature and humidity. The integration of those climate parameters with malaria incidence has become a point of concern for most scientists in the world.
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This study will try to enhance the knowledge of the environmental risk factors that closely relate to malaria incidence. This study will try to deal with malaria problems by focusing on a specific area in regard to specific climate conditions. This could be an example of how to develop an instrument for defining some climate events that can be used to predict the potential of malaria endemic, and to adapt and implement it for the appropriate malaria control strategy. This study will also try to give sufficient information about environment health risk factors for malaria with regard to the formulation of malaria control and prevention policy in TTS District - NTT Province.
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Aim This study will examine the association between environmental risk factors and the prevalence of malaria in TTS. Further, routine surveillance data of malaria cases will be correlated with altitude and rainfall information in order to see if seasonal patterns exist. In addition a simple geographical information system (GIS) mapping of malaria in TTS will be conducted to show the distribution of malaria incidence.
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Area of Study This study was conducted in Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS) District. This district is one of the Fourteen Districts in the Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia. TTS District lies between 124.4 0 - 124.49 0 East and 9.24 0 – 10.00 0 South. This district covers an area of 3.947 km 2 or 8,33 % of the NTT Province. TTS District consists of 11 sub districts with a total of 200 villages. The TTS population based on the Indonesian Census of 2000 is 385,814 with 38,106 households.
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Research Design and Methods This study is an ecological study. Data have been obtained from secondary resources. The institute or agencies which provided data are: TTS District
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