22661 - EPIDEMIOLOGY OF JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS AND CONTROL...

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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS AND CONTROL MEASURES Dr.I.Selvaraj, I.R.M.S B.SC., M.B.B.S., ( M. D COMMUNITY MEDICINE )., D.P.H., Sr.D.M.O (ON STUDY LEAVE) INDIAN RAILWAY MEDICAL SERVICE
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Seen in picture is a man rushing his child to a hospital in Ghorakpur, Uttar Pradesh.)
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Doctors look at a child who is being treated for Japanese Encephalitis at a hospital in Lucknow, India, Thursday, Sept. 8, 2005. The death toll from an outbreak of Japanese Encephalitis in northern India has reached nearly 600, as another 53 people died overnight.
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Japanese Encephalitis is a viral zoonotic disease of Public health importance, because of its epidemic potential and high case mortality rate. It is a mosquito borne zoonotic disease. The virus infects mainly animals through migrating birds. Pig is the amplifier host. Man is affected incidentally. J.E. is primarily a disease of rural,semi urban, agricultural areas where vector mosquitoes proliferate in close association with pigs and other animal reservoirs. Man to man transmission is not possible. The detection of cases are difficult due to the disease apparent and in apparent nature. Once the human is infected with the disease it leads to death in most of the cases. If survive the patient will be with severed physical and neurological complications.
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Japanese Encephalitis is a mosquito-borne viral infection that occurs chiefly in three areas: (1) China and Korea, (2) the Indian sub-continent consisting of India, parts of Bangladesh, southern Nepal, and Sri Lanka, and (3) the southeast Asian countries of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Japanese Encephalitis also may occur with a lower frequency in Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and eastern Russia.
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The virus was isolated for the first time in the world from a post- mortem human brain in Japan in 1933 JE was clinically diagnosed for the first time in India in 1955 at  Vellore, erstwhile North Arcot district of Tamil Nadu. Approximately 3 billion people and 60% of the world's  population live in endemic region  50,000 cases with 10,000 deaths were notified annually from a  wide geographic range. In India there was a rise of JE incidence in 1980s and has  dropped significantly and maintained till 1995 . The major outbreaks coincided with the heavy rainfall and or  floods.  In India, JE is considered mainly as a pediatric problem. 
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JE OUTBREAK INDIA Nagpur (1954-1955) North Arcot , Madras (1955) Agra,U.P- 1958 W.Bengal – 1973 Goa, Kerala, Haryana (samuel et.al.2000) . 1145 cases of Japanese encephalitis have been
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22661 - EPIDEMIOLOGY OF JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS AND CONTROL...

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