22881 - Dr.I.Selvaraj, I.R.M.S B.SC.,M.B.B.S.,(M.D Community

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Unformatted text preview: Dr.I.Selvaraj, I.R.M.S B.SC.,M.B.B.S.,(M.D Community medicine).,D.P.H.,D.I.H.,P.G.C.H&FW(NIHFW,New delhi) Sr.D.M.O(ON STUDY LEAVE) INDIAN RAILWAYS MEDICAL SERVICE In 1881, Carlos Juan Finlay, a physician in Havana, first proposed that yellow fever was a mosquito-borne illness, which subsequently was proven by Walter Reed and colleagues. U.S. Army doctor Discovered the Cause of Yellow Fever August 27, 1900 Research and Walter Reed Walter Reed, M.D., (1851-1902) was an American Army surgeon who led the team which proved the theory first set forth in 1881 by the Cuban doctor and scientist Dr. Carlos Finlay that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes rather than direct contact. The risky but fruitful research work was done with human volunteers, including some of the medical personnel such as Clara Maass and surgeon Jesse W. Lazear Walter Reed Medal winner who allowed themselves to be deliberately infected and died of the virus. All this lead to the elimination of Yellow Fever from Cuba and allowed the final construction of the Panama Canal. Clara Maass On August 14, 1901 , Maass allowed herself to be bitten by infected mosquitoes for the seventh time . Maass once again became ill with yellow fever on August 18 and died on August 24. Her death roused public sentiment and put an end to yellow fever experiments on humans. Thirty-three countries, with a combined population of 508 million, are at risk in Africa. These lie within a band from 15N to 10S of the equator. In the Americas, yellow fever is endemic in nine South American countries and in several Caribbean islands. Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru are considered at greatest risk. There are 200,000 estimated cases of yellow fever (with 30,000 deaths) per year. Countries regarded as yellow fever infected Africa: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast (Cote D'Ivoire), Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan (South of 15 N), Togo, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia. America: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Panama. As of 6 December 2005, the Federal Ministry of Health,SUDAN reported to WHO a total of 565 cases, including 143 deaths, with a case fatality rate of 25.3%. As of 19 December2005, the Ministry of Health, Guinea has reported a total of 114 suspected cases of yellow fever with 26 deaths, Twenty-three of these cases have been laboratory confirmed. There are no reported cases of yellow fever in Asia. It is suspected that the high incidence of dengue fever helps confer protection against yellow fever, and that the Asian mosquito strains are not as competent as vectors of the disease. are not as competent as vectors of the disease....
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course HIST 312 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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22881 - Dr.I.Selvaraj, I.R.M.S B.SC.,M.B.B.S.,(M.D Community

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