24021 - EPIDEMIOLOGY OF LEPTOSPIROSIS & CONTROL...

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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF LEPTOSPIROSIS & CONTROL MEASURES Dr.I.Selvaraj
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Leptospirosis is an acute anthropo- zoonotic infection It occurs in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones. Weil Disease, Hemorrhagic Jaundice, Mud Fever, Swineherd Disease,Canicola Fever, seven-day fever found commonly in Japan, Cane cutter’s disease in Australia, Rice field Leptospirosis in Indonesia , Fort Bragg fever in U.S.Andaman haemorrhagic fever(AHF)
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L2 - Endemic Locations where the infection is commonplace, caused by high rainfall, close human contact with livestock or wild animals, poor sanitation or workplace exposure (rice farming, etc). Example countries in class L2 are India, Central America and certain areas of the Pacific Rim. L1 - General Locations where the infection is at the international average of 0.05 cases per 100,000, and infection is usually the result of accidental exposure through wild rats, livestock or direct contact with water through leisure or occupation. Example countries in class L1 are North America, Europe, Australia and the former Soviet territories.
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1883 it was recognized as an occupational disease of sewer workers 1886 first description (by Weil, Professor of Medicine at Heidelberg (1886) ) of the clinical manifestations seen in men (severe jaundice, fever, and hemorrhage with renal involvement) 1907- Stimson described the lesion in the renal tubules who died of so called yellow fever. 1916 the causal agent was identified by Inada in Japan Noguchi proposed the name ‘Leptospira’ (thin spirals) in 1918
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SERO POSITIVITY RATE - INDIA 2000-2001 – 0 to 46.8% S.India 25.6% N.India 8.3% W.India 3.5% E.India 3.1% &C.India 3.3%
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INDIA The first of its kind in India was reported in the 1920s from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In 1993, a serosurvey of conservancy workers in Madras (using MAT) revealed a prevalence rate of 32.9%. In 1994, an increase in the number of individuals with uveitis was noted at Aravind Eye hospital, Madurai, India after an epidemic of leptospirosis in South India; the epidemic followed severe flooding of the Tamil Nadu District in the autumn of 1993 In 1995, a seroprevalence rate of 12% leptospirosis was found among febrile and jaundice patients in Pondicherry
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LEPTOSPIROSIS IN INDIA In 1905, Chowdry presented 585 cases of the disease in the Andaman islands, calling it "malaria with jaundice". In the
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24021 - EPIDEMIOLOGY OF LEPTOSPIROSIS & CONTROL...

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