Outline of Prehistory 2

Outline of Prehistory 2 - Outline of Prehistory 2 Near East...

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Outline of Prehistory 2
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Near East By 9,000 B.C. we find groups collecting wild wheat and barley. Along the Mediterranean coast they continue to hunt gazelle. In the mountains in Iraq and Iran they are beginning to herd sheep and goat. By 6,500 B.C. we have permanent village agriculture based on cultivation of wheat and barley and herding sheep and goat. Associated with this is an explosion of architecture--including building city wall at Jericho and elaborate temples in Turkey.
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Near East Continued: Associated with this is the development of crafts--stone bowls, grinding stones, ground stone tools, unbaked clay and baked clay figurines, hammered copper. The size of sites rapidly increases. By 6,000 B.C. they have begun to make pottery--by hand. By this time cattle and pig have been domesticated as well. By 5,000 B.C. we have first irrigation, seals, and copper smelting. Long distance trade in obsidian develops here from the beginning of this period.
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Europe Agriculture spreads to Europe from the Near East—it reaches western Europe by 3,000 to 4,000 B.C. It moved slowly due to the need to clear forests. There is more emphasis on cattle domestication and the introduction of some European domesticates like rye. From 2,500 have Megalithic monuments associated with early agriculturalists in western Europe—this culminates later in Stonehenge.
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Africa North Africa adopts wheat, barley, sheep & goat from Near East and may have been part of the same process. In northwest Africa we may have independent domestication of cattle--associated with cattle nomads. Agriculture in subsaharan Africa is more complicated —the climate does not allow the adoption of wheat and barley. African crops like sorghum, millet and African rice were domesticated by 2,000 B.C. Yams may have been domesticated much earlier-- perhaps even back into the Palaeolithic--it is very difficult to know.
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course ANT ant taught by Professor Ant during the Spring '12 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Outline of Prehistory 2 - Outline of Prehistory 2 Near East...

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