GeologyFall2011Quiz1StudyGuide - GEO 303 Quiz 1 Study Guide

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GEO 303 Quiz 1 Study Guide http :// jersey . uoregon . edu /~ mstrick / AskGeoMan / AskGeoManIndex . html a cool little site that explains a lot of the unclear material rather well Quiz: 40 multiple choice - Know how to calculate geologic age Key Terms to Know Lecture 1 Definition of a mineral: - Naturally occurring - Inorganic (two types of chem: organic/inorganic. Organic chem is chem of carbon containing compounds. Some minerals can be created by organic compounds) but mostly inorganic - Fixed chemical composition, or a composition that varies between fixed limits - Atoms positioned in a regular, repeating, three-dimensional pattern (A crystal is a set of atoms that are positioned in a repeating 3D pattern in space.) Probing crystals with x-rays; the unit cell - Because the high level of energy in x-rays, they can penetrate crystals - End up with pattern of spots from the diffracted x-rays that have been shot at a crystal. Unit Cell – smallest and simplest 3D piece of an ordered, repeating pattern in a crystal - Defines atomic arrangement - Building blocks of crystals Crystal vs. Glass - Nature wants to settle in a state of lowest energy, and is therefore the most stable. Crystal is in a perfect repeating pattern, while glass has a random arrangement of atoms. - In a glassy state, you have springs that compress and stretch which require more energy than the crystal state where the springs are relaxed and constant. Chemical bonds Ionic Bond - Charged atom is an ion (+ cation) (- anion) - NaCl is an ionic mineral glued together by opposing charges. Covalent Bonds - Atoms clouds overlapping, minerals wtf explain this ßß (I think it’s like two elements that complete each other’s charge coming together to form a really strong bond, like in diamond. The electrons on the outer rings of the atoms are what attract the certain other atoms to them. I could be wrong, though. I think NaCl works so well because they are able to trade their natural charges to each other in order to become more stable.) Scratching a surface, breaking down the mineral, diamonds have very strong bonds. Graphite has extremely strongly bonded sheets, but the bonds between the sheets are really weak. These (diamond/graphite) are polymorphs of carbon. (Different atomic structures of the same atom) If minerals are inorganic, which means they aren’t carbon based, why, then, are diamond and graphite minerals? Or are they exceptions? Or is it a different type of carbon? I know living things are carbon based, so inorganic materials wouldn’t be carbon based because they can’t come from living things? Chemistry of the earth’s crust - Composition ( abundance) ß that which is abundant will obviously be common minerals. -
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GeologyFall2011Quiz1StudyGuide - GEO 303 Quiz 1 Study Guide

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