myers4 - Myers PSYCHOLOGY Module 4 Neural and Hormonal...

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Myers PSYCHOLOGY Module 4 Neural and Hormonal Systems
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Neural Communication Biological Psychology branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologist, or biopsychologists Neuron a nerve cell the basic building block of the nervous system
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Neural Communication Dendrite the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body ( receives) information. Axon the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands Myelin [MY-uh-lin] Sheath a layer of fatty cells covering the axons of many neurons enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses
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Neural Communication
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Resting potential A neuron at rest has more negatively charged ions (tiny particles) inside then exist outside the cell The neuron maintains this negative charge at rest by actively pumping out positively charged ions and keeping the negatively charged ions inside.
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Action Potentials I When a neuron is stimulated to fire, it responds by opening a tiny portion of its membrane and allowing positive ions to rush in. The neuron then quickly pushes the positively charged ions back out again and closes that section of its membrane. The neuron then opens the next section of its membrane and allows the positively charged ions to rush in, and quickly pushes them back out again. The shift from negative to positive across the cell’s membrane creates an electrical impulse which travels down the cell. When the impulse reaches the axon terminals, it causes the neurotransmitters to be released into the synapse.
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Action Potentials II Action potentials are all or nothing: either they fire or they don’t. Also, for each cell, all action potentials are the same size and intensity. Action potentials range in speed from 2 to 200 miles an hour. Thicker and more myelinated axons conduct impulses more quickly. Following an action potential, a cell has a short refractory period, during which it cannot fire.
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The Synapse Once neurotransmitters are released into the synapse, they can be: Received by their appropriate receptor site Carried away and broken down by the body “Reuptaken” by the neuron that they came from
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2012 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Ennis during the Winter '09 term at Waterloo.

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myers4 - Myers PSYCHOLOGY Module 4 Neural and Hormonal...

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