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myers31 - Thinking Module 31 1 Thinking Thinking or...

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1 Thinking Module 31
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2 Thinking Thinking or  cognition  refers to a process that  involves knowing, understanding, remembering and  communicating.
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3 Category Hierarchies We organize concepts into category hierarchies. C o u r t e s y o f C h r i s t i n e B r u n e
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4 Development of Concepts We form some concepts by definitions, e.g.,  triangle has three side. But mostly we form  concepts by a mental image or a best example  ( prototype ), e.g., robin is a prototype of a bird but  penguin is not. Triangle (definition) Bird (mental image) D a n i e l J . C o x / G e t t y I m a g e s J . M e s s e r s c h m i d t / T h e P i c t u r e C u b e
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5 Categories Once we place an item in a category our memory  shifts toward the category prototype. A computer generated face that was 70 percent Caucasian, lead people to classify it as Caucasian. C o u r t e s y o f O l i v e r C o r n e i l l e
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6 Algorithms Algorithms exhaust all possibilities before arriving  at a solution. They take a long time. Computers use  algorithms. S P L O Y O C H Y G If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word,  using an algorithm approach would take 907,208 possibilities.
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To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of: A. the availability heuristic. B. functional fixedness. C. an algorithm. D. the representativeness heuristic.
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A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member of the local community. The lawyer is most clearly attempting to take advantage of: A. confirmation bias. B. functional fixedness. C. belief perseverance.
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