bio 311c study guide exam 1

bio 311c study guide exam 1 - Biology 311C Exam Study Guide...

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Biology 311C Exam Study Guide Deoxyribose nucleic acid Ribose nucleic acid Carbon 2’ is connected to an H atom Double-stranded Less prone to hydrolysis Complementary base to adenine is thymine ACGT Carries main genetic information Carbon 2’ is connected to a hydroxyl group Single-stranded Shorter chain on nucleotides Less stable Complementary base to adenine is uracil ACGU Acts as catalysts for proteins nucleic acids – complex biomolecules composed of nucleotides that store cellular information in the form of a code; e.g.: RNA and DNA nucleotide – subunit of nucleic acids, formed from a 5-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base (nucleoside) and a phosphate group nitrogenous bases – nitrogen-containing ring structure, purines and pyrimidines pyrimidines purines – adenine and guanine (in DNA AND RNA) nucleoside – nitrogenous base linked to the 1′ carbon of sugar phosphodiester linkages – bonds that connect nucleotides in DNA and RNA ribose – a pentose (and an aldose) sugar, found in RNA deoxyribose – a pentose that is missing one hydroxyl group Some lipids are present in the plasma membrane and they help to maintain the structure and the fluidity of membranes. Lipids function to synthesize hormones and generate energy. Lipids our made in our cells and we also consume them. Lipid signaling is a vital part of the cell signaling and may occur via activation of G protein-coupled or nuclear receptors. Fatty acyls are made up of a hydrocarbon chain that terminates with a carboxylic acid group; this arrangement confers the molecule with a polar, hydrophilic end, and a nonpolar, hydrophobic end that is insoluble in water. Commonly used as a building-block of more complex lipids. Glycerolipids are composed mainly of mono-,di-, and tri-substituted glycerols. The three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are each esterfied, usually by different fatty acids. Glycerophospholipids are key components of the lipid bilayer of cells, cellular plasma membrane, and the intracellular membranes of organelles. Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol, are all derived from the same fused four-ring core structure. Nerve cells have long extensions and transmit signals. Muscle cells have proteins that slide back
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bio 311c study guide exam 1 - Biology 311C Exam Study Guide...

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