Biology 311C Lecture 4 - August 31, 2011 Biology 311C...

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August 31, 2011 Biology 311C Lecture 4 Overview: The molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid. Nucleic acids are made up of nucleotides. Dehydration reaction: synthesizing a polymer. Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond. Hydrolysis: breaking down a polymer. Hydrolysis adds a water molecules, breaking a bond. Animals store glucose in their bodies as glycogen. Glucose is used by our cells to create ATP. Ribose and deoxyribose are in our DNA. Carbs are used in plants to create their cell walls. Starch is also a form of energy for plants. Starch and glucose are made up of alpha particles and cellulose uses beta. Monosacchrarides are classified by the number of carbons. Glucose and galactose are aldose (aldehyde sugar). Fructose is a ketose (ketone sugar). Hydroxyl groups makes the molecule polar and it is the component in a molecule that allows it to dissolve. If the carbon is on the outside of the chain, it is an aldehyde (“outside). If it’s in the
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Biology 311C Lecture 4 - August 31, 2011 Biology 311C...

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