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Biology 311C Lecture 30 - the cytoplasm • The product of...

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November 4, 2011 Biology 311C Lecture 30 **Learn how cellular respiration and photosynthesis are similar.** During DNA replication, a copy of the chromosome is made which is called semi- conservative. Prior to cell division, the chromosomes condense and they look more what we are used to seeing. If the DNA is being transcribed or replicated, it is loose. If it is traveling, it is tight. Within one DNA molecule, you’re going to find areas where it is loose and areas where it is condensed. We have 92 chromatin and during cell division, they wind up in the middle and they are going to separate. DNA is found wrapped around proteins which are histones so a nucleosome can be formed. Identical chromatin that are connected to each other are sister chromosomes. We have 3 steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. The RNA copy has to be copied, and it does not happen in prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic organisms don’t have a nucleus so transcription and translation happens in
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Unformatted text preview: the cytoplasm. • The product of an expressed gene can be mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, and polypeptides. • A number of different types of RNA exist in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Type of RNA Structure/Location Function mRNA tRNA rRNA • The overall structure of RNA is linear (sometimes 3D). An example of 3D RNA is tRNA. • You have a sugar phosphate backbone and it has a 5’ phosphate group and a 3’ hydroxyl group. • The nucleotides can only be added to the 3’ hydroxyl group. The synthesis of RNA runs from 5’ to 3’. • At the active site, there was a peptide bond being made between amino acids. • tRNA is just like mRNA which has a 5’ and 3’ end. There is an anticodon and runs 3’ to 5’. • There are hydrogen bonds between the bases and which make an antiparallel pattern. (UA and TG like in DNA) • The triplet code which is a group of 3 nucleotides to make one amino acid....
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