November 11, 2011Biology 311C Lecture 33•**Test will cover photosynthesis up to section 18.1 (operons).**•A polyribosome has multiple ribosomes moving down a molecule of future RNA. The subunits latch onto the 5’ and leaves from the 3’.•Every polypeptide chain has a beginning (N-terminus) and a carbonyl end (C-terminus).•As the signal peptide is translated, it can be modified. It can carried to the membrane.•Proteins in the ER can be secreted by the cell. It can be modified in the Golgi apparatus.•Inside of the organelles, things are added to the polypeptides such as sugar making it a glycoprotein.•RNA polymerase transcribes DNA at the 3’ end. It synthesizes the complementary RNA from 5’ to 3’.•The ribosome is moving from the bottom to the top from the 5’ end.•Mutations occur in the nucleotide sequence in DNA. You can have mutagens like radiation or chemicals causing changes.
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