November 11, 2011 Biology 311C Lecture 33 • **Test will cover photosynthesis up to section 18.1 (operons).** • A polyribosome has multiple ribosomes moving down a molecule of future RNA. The subunits latch onto the 5’ and leaves from the 3’. • Every polypeptide chain has a beginning (N-terminus) and a carbonyl end (C-terminus). • As the signal peptide is translated, it can be modified. It can carried to the membrane. • Proteins in the ER can be secreted by the cell. It can be modified in the Golgi apparatus. • Inside of the organelles, things are added to the polypeptides such as sugar making it a glycoprotein. • RNA polymerase transcribes DNA at the 3’ end. It synthesizes the complementary RNA from 5’ to 3’. • The ribosome is moving from the bottom to the top from the 5’ end. • Mutations occur in the nucleotide sequence in DNA. You can have mutagens like radiation or chemicals causing changes.
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