TOPIC_1_-_Lecture_Powerpoints_-_How_are_we_unique

TOPIC_1_-_Lecture_Powerpoints_-_How_are_we_unique - Humans...

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Unformatted text preview: Humans how are we unique and how unique are we? The Biology of Being Human Paul M. Bingham Joanne Souza Charles Darwin's Unanswered Question How did humans come to be unique among all animals on earth? Why do we care? Humans how are we unique and how unique are we? wheat corn potato I. The history of the human knowledge enterprise tells us that the only viable explanations are scientific theories Newton's Laws of motion 1. In absence of external force, objects remain in uniform, strait motion. F=ma. Force applied produces both an action and an equal and opposite reaction. 2. 3. Newton's Law of gravitation F= G[m1 m2]/r2 Newton's Laws of motion 1. In absence of external force, objects remain in uniform, strait motion. F=ma. Force applied produces both an action and an equal and opposite reaction. 2. 3. Newton's Law of gravitation F= G[m1 m2]/r2 II. Scientific theories are "reductionist" explanations the only explanations there are One Version of the "Reductionist's Pyramid" Animal societies Animals Organ systems Organs Tissues Cells Molecules Atoms Subatomic particles One Version of the "Reductionist's Pyramid" Humans Animal societies Animals Organ systems Organs Tissues Cells Molecules Atoms Subatomic particles One Version of the "Reductionist's Pyramid" Humans Animal societies Animals Organ systems Organs Tissues Cells Molecules Atoms Subatomic particles III. "Species" and their history tools to test (reductionist) evolutionary theories time animal population a SPECIES geographical barrier introduced NOT SPECIATION two populations reunited two populations accumulate genetic differences geographical barrier removed time animal population a SPECIES geographical barrier introduced SPECIATION two populations reunited two populations accumulate genetic differences geographical barrier removed time animal population a SPECIES geographical barrier introduced SPECIATION two populations reunited two populations accumulate genetic differences geographical barrier removed time animal population a SPECIES geographical barrier introduced SPECIATION time SPECIATION = time SPECIATION = time SPECIATION time time Extinction time time time ancestral cat ancestral ape time ancestral mammal phylogenetic analysis time IV. Putting the human species into the bigger picture Archea Bacteria Protozoans Plants Fungi Animals humans YEARS AGO 1 billion2 billion3 billion4 billion- a Bacteria Protozoans Plants Fungi Animals Protozoans Plants Fungi Animals Protozoans Plants Fungi Animals YEARS AGO 1 billion- 2 billion- rotozoans Plants Fungi Animals ancestral animal ca. 500 million rotozoans Plants Fungi Animals Mollusks Insects Vertebrates humans YEARS AGO 1 billion- ancestral animal 2 billion- ca. 500 million rotozoans Plants Fungi Animals Mollusks Insects Vertebrates YEARS AGO 1 billion- 2 billion- ca. 500 million Fungi Animals Mollusks Insects Vertebrates ca. 500 million Animals Mollusks Insects Vertebrates ca. 500 million Mollusks Insects reptiles mammals humans Vertebrates fish birds (amphibians) ca. 500 million ancestral vertebrate Mollusks Insects reptiles mammals humans Vertebrates fish birds (amphibians) ca. 500 million ancestral vertebrate Mollusks Insects reptiles mammals humans Vertebrates fish birds (amphibians) ca. 500 million ancestral vertebrate One Version of the "Reductionist's Pyramid" Humans Animal societies Animals Organ systems Organs Tissues Cells Molecules Atoms Subatomic particles Humans Animal societies Animals Organ systems Organs Tissues Cells Molecules Atoms Subatomic particles phylogenetic analysis time V. Seeing ourselves in evolutionary context yields surprising insights into human uniqueness Mollusks Insects reptiles mammals humans Vertebrates fish birds (amphibians) ca. 500 million ancestral vertebrate reptiles mammals Humans Chimp fish birds Primates Orangutan Baboon (amphibians) 30 million orangutan gorilla chimpanzee human NO! orangutan gorilla chimpanzee human 6 million years 8 million years 16 million years orangutan gorilla chimpanzee human 6 million years 8 million years 16 million years VI. Precisely how can we use phylogenetic analysis to test theories of human uniqueness? VI. A. Did walking up on two legs make us unique? orangutan gorilla chimpanzee human 2 million years 6 million years "human" australopithecines VI. B. Does our sexual behavior make us unique? VI. C. What about our massive social cooperation? VII. Kinshipindependent cooperation is the unique human trick. Why is this important? A Refined "Reductionist's Pyramid" Animal societies Organisms Systems Cells Molecules Chemistry Subatomic particle physics A Refined "Reductionist's Pyramid" Emergence of Humans Non-human animals Humans Kin cooperation Organisms Systems Cells Molecules Chemistry Subatomic particle physics A Refined "Reductionist's Pyramid" Emergence of Humans Non-human animals Kinshipindependent cooperation Kin cooperation Organisms Systems Cells Molecules Chemistry Subatomic particle physics A Refined "Reductionist's Pyramid" Emergence of Humans Non-human animals Kinshipindependent cooperation Kin cooperation Organisms Systems Cells Molecules Chemistry Subatomic particle physics A Refined "Reductionist's Pyramid" Emergence of Humans Non-human animals Kinshipindependent cooperation Kin cooperation Organisms Systems Cells Molecules Chemistry Subatomic particle physics A Refined "Reductionist's Pyramid" Emergence of Humans Non-human animals Kinshipindependent cooperation Kin cooperation Organisms Systems Cells Molecules Chemistry Subatomic particle physics VIII. How well does the kinship-independent cooperation hypothesis account for us and our properties? VIII.A. Accounts for the explosive emergence of human uniqueness orangutan gorilla chimpanzee human evolution of kinshipindependent social cooperation 2 million years 6 million years 16 million years VIII.B. Accounts for our unique adaptation to "culture" Buddhism Christianity Islam Sikhism adaptation to vast exchange of cultural information orangutan gorilla chimpanzee human evolution of kinshipindependent social cooperation 2 million years 6 million years 16 million years VIII.C. The humanities emerge from the unique ways human use cultural information VIII.D. Our "modern" economic and political lives are products of our ancient biology VIII.E. Our history is a product of our ancient biology ...
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