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Environmental_and_hormonal_control - Ioana Dobre 2.4...

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Ioana Dobre 2.4 Environmental and hormonal control of development from seed to flowering to scencescence Textbook diagram of the seed. Shows the typical grain of corn - a single seed, containing an embryo * has a plumule - endosperm is the food reserve (result of double fertilization. has 3n ploidy level. 2 female nuclei + 1 male nucleus) Therefore the genetics of the seed reserve are more complex - pericarp - the outer tissue (comes from the ovary wall, and it's maternal in inheritance.*therefore when we do seed breeding and we want to insure that we have the correct color and fungal resistance or other characteristics of the seed coat, it's the mother plant's genetics that we care about ) The young embryo : -plumule = young shoot -coleoptile = primordial leaf ( 2 of them if plant is dicot, one in maize because it is a monocot) -radicle + coleorhiza - give rise to the root -pericarp - derived from the ovary part of the female part -endosperm = is triploid Wheat plant (more or less the same anatomy as the corn) The bran is the pericarp -aleurone is the inner layer -the germ is the embryo -the flour is the endosperm only -whole wheat flour would be all 3 together Bran flour: white flour + bran Why would we take out the embryo? ( rich is seed oils) - the trouble with the oil is that under long term storage conditions it can go rancid - whole wheat products have a limited shelf life (oxygen + enzymes lead to rancid flavors) - bran flour: much more stable (lasts for many years) Nutrients in the white flour : 2 biochemical components - 80-90% starch, 10% protein --> not a complete protein,vlow on some amino acids ( lysine, tryptophan) --> always combine a cereal product with a legume! What is in the bran (outer covering) that might be nutritious? --> fibre + secondary metabolites (e.g flavonoids), that have the biochemical property of being anti- oxidant ( we don't want to
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Ioana Dobre be burning fuel without protecting our bodies with anti-oxidants; anything colored is a good source of anti-oxidants) - The germ provides a lot of oils & packed with minerals + vitamins Garden Bean 2 cotyledons! (2n) - no more endosperm! it all went into the cotyledons - seed coat (maternal inheritance) - genetics of the cotyledon: 2n Primary roots come out first -the above ground parts are established later
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