Plant_Biotechnology - Ioana Dobre Plant Biotechnology 1)...

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Ioana Dobre Plant Biotechnology 1) Early biotechnology generated crops in Canada 2) Tissue culture of plants: - Propagation of elite varieties - Production/study of natural products 3) Transformation with transgenes - Biotechnology applications Early biotechnology generated crop: triticale - Triticale = crosses between tetraploid wheat Triticum sp. and diploid rye Secale cereal Why cross them? - Wheat (4n) is better tasting to most people than rye (2n) but rye is much more resistant to diseases like fungus or rust - chromosome # is not the same between the wheat and the rye - therefore the make a fertile hybrid rye the chromosomes were double with colchicine - we can get the chromosome number identical to wheat and then be able to cross the 2 plants ->> result triticale:20% higher yield than wheat and disease resistance of rye Rapeseed and canola Canola - most famous biotechnology generated crop - worth more than wheat - grows in cold northern conditions - produced from a mustard ( a European oilseed, with bright yellow flower) - 'rapeseed' - not very popular as an oil crop b/c the cooking oil produced from it contained high amounts of erucic acid (fatty acids lead to arteriosclerosis, i.e direct link to heart diseases) - the protein and carbohydrate seedcake is high in glucosinolate content and hence could not be used as a source of agricultural food source for cattle ( anti-nutritive) - the seedcake from this plant would give cattle digestive problems Canola: - reduced erucic acid content + allele glucosinolate levels - the monounsaturated fatty acids + alpha-linoleic acid are very high - monunsaturated fatty acids are overall better for health Improvement involved dissection of 1 cotyledon for photochemical analysis from thousands of
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2012 for the course BIO Bio2137 taught by Professor Namroud during the Fall '11 term at University of Ottawa.

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Plant_Biotechnology - Ioana Dobre Plant Biotechnology 1)...

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