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07_CVD=) - Film Deposition Techniques Physical Vapour...

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(Gan 2010/11) Film Deposition Techniques Physical Vapour Deposition Evaporation Sputtering Chemical Vapour Deposition Different types of films (e.g. metallic films, insulators) are grown using different techniques Different growth techniques and/or conditions give different film properties (e.g. crystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous)
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(Gan 2010/11) Interconnects and Transistors Bird’s eye SEM view of a 7-level interconnect network (IBM) Cross-sectional view of 7-level interconnect: 1-level of W “local interconnect”, and 6-level Cu “global Interconnect (IBM) A MOSFET cross- section enlarged! 0.2 P m MOSFET gate
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(Gan 2010/11) etch stop layer, usually Si 3 N 4 Interconnect, Cu or Al liner (diffusion barrier), usually Ta/TaN dielectric, SiO 2 or low-k W contact Materials in an Integrated Circuit (IC) Polysilicon gate Silicides contact, TiSi 2 or CoSi 2
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(Gan 2010/11) Deposition Techniques for Thin Films (Plummer)
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(Gan 2010/11) Deposition Techniques for Thin Films (Plummer)
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(Gan 2010/11) Film Structure Film formation process Epitaxial films Polycrystalline films Amorphous films
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(Gan 2010/11) Film Formation Process Vapour of atoms (PVD or CVD) arrive on substrate surface Atoms may be reflected, implanted or absorbed (depending on energy of arrival atoms) Adsorbed atoms may desorb, diffuse or attach on the surface Diffusing atoms may create new nucleation sites or contribute to growth on existing grains
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(Gan 2010/11) Rates of Surface Processes All surface processes are thermally activated Crystal quality (i.e. defect density or whether you get epitaxial films) depends strongly on substrate temperature Rates of adsorption, desorption, diffusion and attachment follows an Arrhenius relationship ¸ ¸ ¹ · ¨ ¨ © § ± ¸ ¸ ¹ · ¨ ¨ © § ± sub de de de sub ad ad ad kT E f f kT E f f exp exp 0 , 0 , ¸ ¸ ¹ · ¨ ¨ © § ± ¸ ¸ ¹ · ¨ ¨ © § ± sub SD diff diff sub att att att kT E f f kT E f f exp exp 0 , 0 ,
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(Gan 2010/11) Atoms can attach at a free surface, step or corner Different binding energy associated with different locations I 1 /face, I 2 /edge A: Adsorption on a surface, I 1 + 4 I 2 B: Adsorption at a step, 2 I 1 + 6 I 2 C: Adsorption at a corner, 3 I 1 + 6 I 2 Adsorption
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(Gan 2010/11) Nucleation Only clusters larger than a critical size are stable and can grow (C.V. Thompson)
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(Gan 2010/11) Nucleation Nucleation rate depends on substrate temperature, T sub , and deposition flux, F dep (C.V. Thompson)
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(Gan 2010/11) Nucleation Heterogeneous nucleation occurs on substrate; compare to homogeneous nucleation which occurs through condensation out of the gas phase (C.V. Thompson)
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(Gan 2010/11) Island Growth Islands grow by direct addition of adatoms from the vapour phase, and by addition of adatoms by arrival on the substrate followed by diffusion on the substrate surface.
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