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12+annotated+groundwater - A Hidden Reserve: Groundwater...

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A Hidden Reserve: Groundwater Prepared by Ronald Parker Earlham College Department of Geosciences Richmond, Indiana
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Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 19: A Hidden Reserve: Groundwater Groundwater Significant amounts of water reside underground. It is A major component of the hydrologic cycle. A major source of water for a thirsty world. Largely hidden from view. Thus, groundwater is poorly understood by many people. It is a precious resource that is susceptible to contamination.
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Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 19: A Hidden Reserve: Groundwater The Hydrologic Cycle Groundwater is a component of the hydrologic cycle. Hydrologic cycle processes. Evaporation. Transpiration. Precipitation. Infiltration. Runoff.
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Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 19: A Hidden Reserve: Groundwater The Underground Reservoir Some precipitation enters the subsurface via infiltration. Soil properties and vegetation govern infiltration rate. Infiltrated water adds to soil moisture and groundwater. Soil moisture wets the soil. Some is wicked up by roots, some is evaporated.
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Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 19: A Hidden Reserve: Groundwater The Underground Reservoir Some infiltrated water percolates to a deeper level. It is added to water that fills subsurface void spaces. This is groundwater.
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Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 19: A Hidden Reserve: Groundwater Porosity Groundwater resides in subsurface pore spaces. Pores are open spaces within any sediment or rock. The total volume of open space is termed porosity. Geologic materials exhibit a wide range of porosities.
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Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 19: A Hidden Reserve: Groundwater Porosity Two categories of porosity: primary and secondary. Primary porosity – Originally formed with the material. Voids in sediment. Vesicles in basalt. Open reef framework. Primary porosity may decrease. With burial compaction. With cementation. Crystalline rocks have very little primary porosity.
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Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 19: A Hidden Reserve: Groundwater Porosity Two categories of porosity. Secondary porosity – Developed after rock formation. Fracturing. Faulting. Dissolution.
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Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 19: A Hidden Reserve: Groundwater Permeability The ease of water flow due to pore interconnectedness. High-permeability material allows water to flow readily. Water flows slowly through low-permeability material.
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course CE 70 taught by Professor Johnson during the Fall '07 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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12+annotated+groundwater - A Hidden Reserve: Groundwater...

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