20+annotated+earthquake+fundamentals

20+annotated+earthquake+fundamentals - Izmet after the 1999...

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Chapter 10: A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Izmet after the 1999 earthquake
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Chapter 10: A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak What Is an Earthquake? Earth shaking caused by a rapid release of energy. Due to tectonic stresses that cause rocks to displace. Energy moves outward as an expanding sphere of waves. This waveform energy can be measured around the globe. Earthquakes destroy buildings and kill people. 3.5 million deaths in the last 2,000 years. Earthquakes are common.
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Chapter 10: A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Seismicity Seismicity (earthquake activity) occurs due to Motion along a newly formed crustal fracture (fault). Motion on an existing fault. A sudden change in mineral structure. Inflation of a magma chamber. Volcanic eruption. Giant landslides. Meteorite impacts. Nuclear detonations. Pumping of fluids underground.
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Chapter 10: A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Faults and Earthquakes Most earthquakes occur along faults. Faults are crustal fractures that move rock masses. The amount of movement is termed displacement. Displacement is also called offset, or slip. Markers may reveal the amount of offset.
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Chapter 10: A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak
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Chapter 10: A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Fig. 10.06g Photo courtesy of Paul l Kip z Otis-Diehl, USMC, 29 Palms, CA
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Chapter 10: A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Convergent Boundaries Cities near subduction zones have to contend with frequent earthquakes.
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Chapter 10: A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Earthquake Focal Depths Shallow – 0-20 km. Along the mid-ocean ridge. Transform boundaries. Shallow part of trenches. Continental crust.
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Chapter 10: A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Earthquake Focal Depths Intermediate and deep earthquakes occur along the subduction trace, the Benioff-Wadati zone. Intermediate – 20-300 km - Downgoing plate still brittle. Deep - 300-670 km - Mineral transformations? Earthquakes rare below 670 km (mantle is ductile).
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Chapter 10: A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3 rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Continental Earthquakes Earthquakes in continental crust. Continental transform faults (San Andreas, Anatolian). Continental rifts (Basin and Range, East African Rift).
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course CE 70 taught by Professor Johnson during the Fall '07 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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20+annotated+earthquake+fundamentals - Izmet after the 1999...

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