Ch 6_Part 1_021412 - Chapter 6 Chemical Equilibrium 6.1 6.4...

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2/14/2012 1 Chapter 6: Chemical Equilibrium 6.1 The Equilibrium Condition 6.4 The Concept of Activity 6.2 The Equilibrium Constant 6.3 Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures 6.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 6.6 Applications of the Equilibrium Constant 6.7 Solving Equilibrium Problems 6.8 Le Châtelier’s Principle 1 To this point we have assumed that all chemical reactions go to completion. That is, a chemical reaction is “complete” when one or more of the reactants is completely consumed. Not all reactions go to completion. Even after an infinitely long time, some reaction systems will remain mixtures of reactants and products. The reaction system includes… Concentrations/pressures of all species Temperature Each reaction system has an equilibrium position at which the concentrations of all species are constant (assuming no changes to the system). Chemical Equilibrium
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2/14/2012 2 Molecular Picture of Establishment of Equilibrium CO( g ) + H 2 O( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 ( g ) Initial amounts 7 CO + 7 H 2 O + 0 CO 2 + 0 H 2 At equilibrium 2 CO + 2 H 2 O + 5 CO 2 + 5 H 2 Concentration vs. Time P/R ratio depends on temperature CO( g ) + H 2 O( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 ( g ) Chem 162: Kinetics Chem 142: Equilibrium
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2/14/2012 3 “Chemical equilibrium is the state at which the concentrations of all reactants and products remain the same” “ At chemical equilibrium the rate of formation and decomposition remains the same” – the reaction does not stop! Macroscopic changes stop, but chemistry is still occurring at the microscopic level. “ When equilibrium favors the products, the equilibrium is said to be shifted to the right” 2 NO 2 (g) N 2 O 4 (g) Dimerization of nitrogen dioxide Decomposition of dinitrogen tetroxide Chemical Equilibrium Reaching Equilibrium on the Macroscopic and Molecular Levels N 2 O 4 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) Colorless Brown DECOMPOSITION
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2/14/2012 4 Since the concentrations of reactants and products are constant at equilibrium, we can use these concentrations to define a quantity referred to as the equilibrium constant, K.
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Ch 6_Part 1_021412 - Chapter 6 Chemical Equilibrium 6.1 6.4...

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