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The Science of Nutrition

The Science of Nutrition - Exam 1 Study Guide Nutrition...

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Exam 1 Study Guide Nutrition Brenden Schwartz The Science of Nutrition 1. What is the definition of nutrition? The study of the nutrients in foods and in the body; sometimes also the study of human behaviors related to food 2. Why is nutrition classified as a science? It uses the scientific method to uncover unknown nutrition facts. New findings must be repeated before they can be considered valid. New findings must withstand the test of time. Observe, formulate hypothesis, test hypothesis, evaluate results, compare hypothesis, revise hypothesis. 3. What are the 4 types of study designs? What are the strengths and limitations of each? What study is the gold standard in proving cause and effect? 1. Epidemiological study- studies of populations; first step in seeking nutrition related diseases (correlation). Does not show cause and effect too broad. 2. Lab study- tightly controlled conditions pinpoint cause and effect. 3. Intervention Study- population where observation is accompanied by experimental manipulation (experimental group and control group (placebo)) 4.Case Study- studies of individuals *reference workbook for examples and further information Food choices and human health 1. What is the difference between hunger and appetite? Hunger refers to a physical discomfort caused by the lack of food. One common sign is a rumbling stomach. This rumbling can be accompanied by a feeling of lightheadedness and weakness. Hunger only occurs after an extended period of time since eating. Appetite (psychological) is a desire or craving for food. It can be prompted by the sight or smell of food. Stomach may be full but appetite is still stimulated. 2. What are some mechanisms that the body has to regulate hunger? Hypothalamus, cortisol, leptin, neuropeptide 1
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Exam 1 Study Guide Nutrition Brenden Schwartz 3. What factors affect our appetite? Comfort foods, ethnic heritage, advertising 4. Describe the four influences on food availability. 1. Natural Environment- climate, topography, rainfall 2. Technology- farming practices, food storage, food duration, advertising, food processing 3. Economics- cash crops vs. food for family consumption, income, demand 4. Population 5. What are the 6 classes of nutrients? Water, Carbohydrate, fat (lipids), protein, vitamins, minerals 6. How many calories per gram are there in carbohydrates, fat and protein? Which is the most concentrated source of calories? Protein 4 kcal/gram - grams Carbohydrates 4kcal/gram- grams Lipids 9kcal/gram- grams Lipids have the most concentrated source of calories 7. If you consumed a meal containing 100 grams of carbohydrate, 25 grams of fat and 15 grams of protein, how many calories did you consume? 685 8. It is recommended that no more than 35% of your calories come from fat. If your calorie needs at 2200 kcal/day, how many grams of fat should you consume?
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